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      Intranasal administration of elastin-like polypeptide for therapeutic delivery to the central nervous system

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          Abstract

          Bypassing the blood–brain barrier is one of the primary considerations when designing compounds intended to function in the central nervous system (CNS). Intranasal (IN) administration of otherwise blood–brain barrier impermeable molecules can result in high CNS concentrations and low systemic accumulation, indicating that IN administration may be a useful method of delivering therapeutics to the CNS. Elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) is a large, non-immunogenic, highly manipulable biopolymer with extensive evidence supporting its use as a carrier with the ability to improve drug pharmacokinetics and drug targeting. The ability of ELP to reach the CNS via IN administration has been shown previously. Previous studies have also identified the ability of cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) to increase the uptake of molecules in some instances, including via the IN route. Here, we compared and contrasted the biodistribution of ELPs with or without addition of the CPPs Tat or SynB1 via both the IN and intravenous routes. Administration of ELP via the IN route led to significant accumulation in the brain, especially in the olfactory bulbs. When injected intravenously, <3% of the ELP signal was present outside the vascular compartment. This contrasted with IN administration, which resulted in 79% of the fluorescence signal localized outside the vascular space. The fusion of Tat or SynB1 significantly altered the biodistribution of ELP, decreasing the total CNS accumulation following IN administration. The addition of CPPs to ELP increased their retention in the nasal epithelium. These results suggest ELP may represent an effective CNS delivery vector without further modification and that the addition of a CPP significantly influences biodistribution.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Toxicity and tissue distribution of magnetic nanoparticles in mice.

          The development of technology enables the reduction of material size in science. The use of particle reduction in size from micro to nanoscale not only provides benefits to diverse scientific fields but also poses potential risks to humans and the environment. For the successful application of nanomaterials in bioscience, it is essential to understand the biological fate and potential toxicity of nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological distribution as well as the potential toxicity of magnetic nanoparticles to enable their diverse applications in life science, such as drug development, protein detection, and gene delivery. We recently synthesized biocompatible silica-overcoated magnetic nanoparticles containing rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC) within a silica shell of controllable thickness [MNPs@SiO2(RITC)]. In this study, the MNPs@SiO2(RITC) with 50-nm thickness were used as a model nanomaterial. After intraperitoneal administration of MNPs@SiO2(RITC) for 4 weeks into mice, the nanoparticles were detected in the brain, indicating that such nanosized materials can penetrate blood-brain barrier (BBB) without disturbing its function or producing apparent toxicity. After a 4-week observation, MNPs@SiO2(RITC) was still present in various organs without causing apparent toxicity. Taken together, our results demonstrated that magnetic nanoparticles of 50-nm size did not cause apparent toxicity under the experimental conditions of this study.
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            Chitosan in nasal delivery systems for therapeutic drugs.

            There is an obvious need for efficient and safe nasal absorption enhancers for the development of therapeutically efficacious nasal products for small hydrophilic drugs, peptides, proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides, which do not easily cross mucosal membranes, including the nasal. Recent years have seen the development of a range of nasal absorption enhancer systems such as CriticalSorb (based on Solutol HS15) (Critical Pharmaceuticals Ltd), Chisys based on chitosan (Archimedes Pharma Ltd) and Intravail based on alkylsaccharides (Aegis Therapeutics Inc.), that is presently being tested in clinical trials for a range of drugs. So far, none of these absorption enhancers have been used in a marketed nasal product. The present review discusses the evaluation of chitosan and chitosan derivatives as nasal absorption enhancers, for a range of drugs and in a range of formulations such as solutions, gels and nanoparticles and finds that chitosan and its derivatives are able to efficiently improve the nasal bioavailability. The revirtew also questions whether chitosan nanoparticles for systemic drug delivery provide any real improvement over simpler chitosan formulations. Furthermore, the review also evaluates the use of chitosan formulations for the improvement of transport of drugs directly from the nasal cavity to the brain, based on its mucoadhesive characteristics and its ability to open tight junctions in the olfactory and respiratory epithelia. It is found that the use of chitosan nanoparticles greatly increases the transport of drugs from nose to brain over and above the effect of simpler chitosan formulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Delivery of siRNA to the brain using a combination of nose-to-brain delivery and cell-penetrating peptide-modified nano-micelles.

              The potential for RNA-based agents to serve as effective therapeutics for central nerve systems (CNS) disorders has been successfully demonstrated in vitro. However, the blood-brain barrier limits the distribution of systemically administered therapeutics to the CNS, posing a major challenge for drug development aimed at combatting CNS disorders. Therefore, the development of effective strategies to enhance siRNA delivery to the brain is of great interest in clinical and pharmaceutical fields. To improve the efficiency of small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery to the brain, we developed a nose-to-brain delivery system combined with cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) modified nano-micelles comprising polyethylene glycol-polycaprolactone (PEG-PCL) copolymers conjugated with the CPP, Tat (MPEG-PCL-Tat). In this study, we describe intranasal brain delivery of siRNA or dextran (Mw: 10,000 Da) as a model siRNA, by using MPEG-PCL-Tat. Intranasal delivery of dextran with MPEG-PCL-Tat improved brain delivery compared to intravenous delivery of dextran either with or without MPEG-PCL-Tat. We also studied the intranasal transfer of MPEG-PCL-Tat to the brain via the olfactory and trigeminal nerves, the putative pathways to the brain from the nasal cavity. We found that MPEG-PCL-Tat accelerated transport along the olfactory and trigeminal nerve pathway because of its high permeation across the nasal mucosa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2016
                06 September 2016
                : 10
                : 2803-2813
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Neurology
                [2 ]Department of Biochemistry, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Gene L Bidwell III, Department of Neurology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, MS 39216, USA, Tel +1 601 984 6787, Fax +1 601 984 6626, Email gbidwell@ 123456umc.edu
                Article
                dddt-10-2803
                10.2147/DDDT.S106216
                5019317
                © 2016 McGowan et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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