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      Platelet–lymphocyte ratios: a potential marker for pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis in COPD patients

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          Abstract

          Background

          In recent decades, morbidity and mortality have been found to be significantly increased in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) complicated with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Platelet–lymphocyte ratio (PLR) is an indicator for inflammatory diseases. This study aims to investigate whether PLR could act as a potential marker for patients with COPD complicated with PTB.

          Methods

          In this retrospective study, laboratory characteristics of 87 COPD patients complicated with PTB (determined by Mycobacterium tuberculosis positive culture from sputum or bronchial lavage fluid) and 83 COPD patients (as the control group, determined by M. tuberculosis culture negativity from sputum or bronchial lavage fluid) were investigated. Data obtained on the day of admission were analyzed.

          Results

          PLR >216.82 was identified as the optimal cutoff value for discriminating COPD patients with PTB (sensitivity 92.4%, specificity 84.5%, positive-predictive value 91.6%, negative-predictive value 86.2%, and area under the curve [AUC] was 0.87) from patients with COPD alone. The AUC of PLR was significantly greater than that of neutrophil–lymphocyte count ratio (AUC, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.67–0.81; P<0.01).

          Conclusion

          PLR could be developed as a valuable maker for identifying tuberculosis infection in COPD patients.

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          Most cited references 20

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          The relationship between delayed or incomplete treatment and all-cause mortality in patients with tuberculosis.

          To analyze the factors associated with survival in patients with pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis in New York City. Observational study of a citywide cohort of tuberculosis cases. New York City, April 1991, before the strengthening of its control program. All 229 newly diagnosed cases of tuberculosis documented by culture in April 1991. Most patients (74%) were male, and the median age was 37 years (range, 1-89 years). In all, 89% belonged to minority groups. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was present in 50% and multidrug resistance in 7% of the cases. Twenty-one patients (9%) were not treated. Follow-up information was collected through the New York City tuberculosis registry; death from any cause was verified through the National Death Index. Cumulative all-cause mortality by October 1994 was 44%; the median survival for those who died was 6.3 months (range, 0 days to 3 years). The most important baseline predictors of mortality, adjusted for baseline clinical and demographic factors, were acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (91% vs 11% in HIV-seronegative patients; Cox relative risk [RR], 7.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-29.1), multidrug resistance (87% vs 39% in pansensitive cases; adjusted RR, 5.8; 95% CI, 2.3-14.5), and lack of treatment (81% vs 40%; adjusted RR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.0-9.7). Also, 11 of 13 HIV-infected patients who started treatment after a 1-month delay died. Among 173 patients surviving the recommended treatment period, those who completed therapy (66%) had a lower subsequent mortality (20% vs 37%; RR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.9). Mortality from tuberculosis was high, even among patients without multidrug resistance who were not known to be infected with HIV. Most HIV-seropositive patients with delayed therapy died. Multidrug resistance predicted higher mortality, and treatment completion was associated with improved subsequent patient survival.
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            COPD and the Risk of Tuberculosis - A Population-Based Cohort Study

            Background Both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and tuberculosis (TB) primarily affect the lungs and are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. COPD and TB have common risk factors such as smoking, low socioeconomic status and dysregulation of host defence functions. COPD is a prevalent co-morbid condition, especially in elderly with TB but in contrast to other diseases known to increase the risk of TB, relatively little is known about the specific relationship and impact from COPD on TB-incidence and mortality. Methods and Findings All individuals ≥40 years of age, discharged with a diagnosis of COPD from Swedish hospitals 1987–2003 were identified in the Swedish Inpatient Register (n = 115,867). Records were linked to the Swedish Tuberculosis Register 1989–2007 and the relative risk of active TB in patients with COPD compared to control subjects randomly selected from the general population (matched for sex, year of birth and county of residence) was estimated using Cox regression. The analyses were stratified by year of birth, sex and county of residence and adjusted for immigration status, socioeconomic status (SES) and inpatient co-morbidities previously known to increase the risk of TB. COPD patients had a three-fold increased hazard ratio (HR) of developing active TB (HR 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.4 to 4.0)) that was mainly dependent on an increased risk of pulmonary TB. In addition, logistic regression estimates showed that COPD patients who developed active TB had a two-fold increased risk of death from all causes within first year after the TB diagnosis compared to the general population control subjects with TB (OR 2.2, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 4.1). Conclusions This population-based study comprised of a large number of COPD patients shows that these patients have an increased risk of developing active TB compared to the general population. The results raise concerns that the increasing global burden of COPD will increase the incidence of active TB. The underlying contributory factors need to be disentangled in further studies.
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              Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a retrospective study.

              Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the lung with a high mortality and morbidity rate. Some of the inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), leukocyte count are associated with COPD. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in COPD patients comparing with the other well-known inflammatory markers. We retrospectively enrolled the laboratory results of 269 COPD patients of which 178 patients at stable period and 91 patients during acute exacerbation and 50 sex- and age- matched healthy controls. We found that NLR values of the stable COPD patients were significantly higher than those of the controls (P < 0.001). During acute exacerbation of the disease there was a further increase compared to stable period (P < 0.001). NLR values were also positively correlated with serum CRP levels and red cell distribution width (RDW) and negatively correlated with mean platelet volume (MPV) in both COPD groups. In conclusion, NLR could be considered as a new inflammatory marker for assessment of inflammation in COPD patients with its quick, cheap, easily measurable property with routine complete blood count analysis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2016
                03 November 2016
                : 11
                : 2737-2740
                Affiliations
                Department of Respiratory Medicine, Yiwu Central Hospital, Yiwu, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Guozhong Chen, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Yiwu Central Hospital, No 699 Jiangdong Road, Yiwu City, 322000 Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 579 8520 9871, Fax +86 579 8520 9871, Email guozhongchen2015@ 123456sina.com
                Article
                copd-11-2737
                10.2147/COPD.S111254
                5098523
                © 2016 Chen et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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