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      Oxidative Stress Indexes for Diagnosis of Health or Disease in Humans

      Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity

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          Oxidative stress (OS) is the imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant molecules, in favor of oxidants, that causes aging and disease. Many studies have been published that demonstrate the relationship between OS and human health and disease; however, the following questions arise: (i) how are we sure that the OS is present in a biological process? (ii) Is the OS reported in the different investigations equivalent? (iii) What are the best oxidant and antioxidant markers for OS diagnosis? (iv) Can we establish the types and the intensity of the OS? (v) Does OS index could be useful for research and/or application in clinical medicine? In this regard, several indexes have been proposed to measure OS in humans relative to the state of health and disease, among which the following can be highlighted: Oxidative Stress Index (OSI), Tiol Ratios (-SH/TT, -SS/-SH, and-SS/TT), Glutathione Ratio (GSSG/GSH), Oxidative Stress Score (OSS), and OXY-index. Therefore, the aim of this review is to present the state of the art of knowledge about OS indexes for diagnosis of health or disease in humans. We searched for articles in English or Spanish in the PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus electronic databases published up until May 2019. The keywords used were “oxidative stress,” “index,” and “oxidative stress index.” It was identified 11479 records in both databases, and 490 articles were analyzed. Our review suggests that all indexes analyzed allow diagnose and differentiate the OS related to human health and disease. Also, the studies on OSI, Oxy-score, and OSS indexes have proven to be reliable, practical, and with clinical utility. However, it is necessary to continue with longitudinal studies, especially assess the usefulness of the indexes in the clinical prognosis, and make comparative studies between the different indexes.

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            To develop a novel and automated assay determining plasma thiol/disulphide homeostasis, which consists of thiol-disulphide exchanges.
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              Even free radicals should follow some rules: a guide to free radical research terminology and methodology.

              Free radicals and oxidants are now implicated in physiological responses and in several diseases. Given the wide range of expertise of free radical researchers, application of the greater understanding of chemistry has not been uniformly applied to biological studies. We suggest that some widely used methodologies and terminologies hamper progress and need to be addressed. We make the case for abandonment and judicious use of several methods and terms and suggest practical and viable alternatives. These changes are suggested in four areas: use of fluorescent dyes to identify and quantify reactive species, methods for measurement of lipid peroxidation in complex biological systems, claims of antioxidants as radical scavengers, and use of the terms for reactive species.

                Author and article information

                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
                25 November 2019
                : 2019
                : 4128152
                Unidad de Investigación en Gerontología, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, México. Av. Guelatao No. 66, Col. Ejército de Oriente, Iztapalapa, Ciudad de Mexico, CP 09230, Mexico
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Ilaria Peluso

                Author information
                Copyright © 2019 Martha A. Sánchez-Rodríguez and Víctor Manuel Mendoza-Núñez.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 22 July 2019
                : 11 October 2019
                : 23 October 2019
                Funded by: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
                Funded by: Secretaría de Educación, Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación de la Ciudad de México
                Award ID: SECITI/042/2018
                Review Article

                Molecular medicine
                Molecular medicine


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