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      Relating characteristics of global biodiversity targets to reported progress


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          To inform governmental discussions on the nature of a revised Strategic Plan for Biodiversity of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), we reviewed the relevant literature and assessed the framing of the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets in the current strategic plan. We asked international experts from nongovernmental organizations, academia, government agencies, international organizations, research institutes, and the CBD to score the Aichi Targets and their constituent elements against a set of specific, measurable, ambitious, realistic, unambiguous, scalable, and comprehensive criteria (SMART based, excluding time bound because all targets are bound to 2015 or 2020). We then investigated the relationship between these expert scores and reported progress toward the target elements by using the findings from 2 global progress assessments (Global Biodiversity Outlook and the Intergovernmental Science‐Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services). We analyzed the data with ordinal logistic regressions. We found significant positive relationships ( p < 0.05) between progress and the extent to which the target elements were perceived to be measurable, realistic, unambiguous, and scalable. There was some evidence of a relationship between progress and specificity of the target elements, but no relationship between progress and ambition. We are the first to show associations between progress and the extent to which the Aichi Targets meet certain SMART criteria. As negotiations around the post‐2020 biodiversity framework proceed, decision makers should strive to ensure that new or revised targets are effectively structured and clearly worded to allow the translation of targets into actionable policies that can be successfully implemented nationally, regionally, and globally.


          Article impact statement: A post‐2020 framework for biodiversity conservation must ensure targets are clearly structured and worded to allow translation into policy.

          Translated abstract

          Relación de las Características de los Objetivos Mundiales de Biodiversidad con el Progreso Reportado


          Para informar las discusiones gubernamentales sobre la naturaleza de una revisión del Plan Estratégico para la Biodiversidad del Convenio sobre la Diversidad Biológica (CBD, en inglés), revisamos la literatura relevante y evaluamos el marco de 20 Objetivos de Biodiversidad de Aichi en el plan estratégico actual. Le pedimos a expertos internacionales de organizaciones no gubernamentales, de la academia, de agencias gubernamentales, organizaciones internacionales, de institutos de investigación y de la CBD que puntuaran los Objetivos de Aichi y sus elementos constituyentes frente a un conjunto de criterios específicos, medibles, ambiciosos, realistas (basados en SMART [las iniciales en inglés] y excluyendo aquellos limitados por el tiempo, pues todos los objetivos están limitados al 2015 o al 2020), inequívocos, expansibles y completos (excluyendo aquellos limitados por el tiempo). Después investigamos la relación entre los puntajes de estos expertos y el progreso reportado hacia los elementos objetivo usando los resultados de dos valoraciones mundiales del progreso (el Pronóstico Mundial de la Biodiversidad y la Plataforma Intergubernamental de Ciencia y Política sobre la Biodiversidad y los Servicios Ambientales). Analizamos los datos con regresiones logísticas ordinales. Encontramos relaciones positivas significativas ( p < 0.05) entre el progreso y el alcance al que fueron percibidos como medibles, realistas, inequívocos y expansibles los elementos objetivo. Hubo algo de evidencia de la relación entre el progreso y la ambición. Somos los primeros en mostrar las asociaciones entre el progreso y la extensión hasta la que los Objetivos de Aichi cumplen con ciertos criterios SMART. Conforme proceden las negociaciones en torno al marco de trabajo de biodiversidad post‐2020, quienes toman las decisiones deberían esforzarse por asegurar que los objetivos nuevos o revisados estén estructurados efectivamente y redactados claramente para permitir la traducción de los objetivos hacia políticas factibles que puedan implementarse exitosamente a nivel nacional, regional y mundial.

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          Most cited references34

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          An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm

          Abstract We assess progress toward the protection of 50% of the terrestrial biosphere to address the species-extinction crisis and conserve a global ecological heritage for future generations. Using a map of Earth's 846 terrestrial ecoregions, we show that 98 ecoregions (12%) exceed Half Protected; 313 ecoregions (37%) fall short of Half Protected but have sufficient unaltered habitat remaining to reach the target; and 207 ecoregions (24%) are in peril, where an average of only 4% of natural habitat remains. We propose a Global Deal for Nature—a companion to the Paris Climate Deal—to promote increased habitat protection and restoration, national- and ecoregion-scale conservation strategies, and the empowerment of indigenous peoples to protect their sovereign lands. The goal of such an accord would be to protect half the terrestrial realm by 2050 to halt the extinction crisis while sustaining human livelihoods.
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              A mid-term analysis of progress toward international biodiversity targets.

              In 2010, the international community, under the auspices of the Convention on Biological Diversity, agreed on 20 biodiversity-related "Aichi Targets" to be achieved within a decade. We provide a comprehensive mid-term assessment of progress toward these global targets using 55 indicator data sets. We projected indicator trends to 2020 using an adaptive statistical framework that incorporated the specific properties of individual time series. On current trajectories, results suggest that despite accelerating policy and management responses to the biodiversity crisis, the impacts of these efforts are unlikely to be reflected in improved trends in the state of biodiversity by 2020. We highlight areas of societal endeavor requiring additional efforts to achieve the Aichi Targets, and provide a baseline against which to assess future progress.

                Author and article information

                Conserv Biol
                Conserv. Biol
                Conservation Biology
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                05 June 2019
                December 2019
                : 33
                : 6 ( doiID: 10.1111/cobi.v33.6 )
                : 1360-1369
                [ 1 ] Centre for Conservation Science Royal Society for the Protection of Birds The Lodge, Potton Road Sandy SG19 2DL U.K.
                [ 2 ] UN Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP‐WCMC) 219 Huntingdon Road Cambridge CB3 0DL U.K.
                [ 3 ] BirdLife International David Attenborough Building, Pembroke Street Cambridge CB2 3QZ U.K.
                [ 4 ] Department of Zoology University of Cambridge Downing Street Cambridge CB2 3EJ U.K.
                [ 5 ] Centre for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, Natural History Museum University of Copenhagen Copenhagen DK‐2100 Denmark
                [ 6 ] Department of Life Sciences Natural History Museum Cromwell Road London SW7 5BD U.K.
                [ 7 ] Centre for Biodiversity & Environment Research University College London London WC1H 0AG U.K.
                Author notes
                Author information
                © 2019 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 26 November 2018
                : 10 March 2019
                : 28 March 2019
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Pages: 10, Words: 6061
                Funded by: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs , open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100000277;
                Contributed Paper
                Contributed Papers
                Custom metadata
                December 2019
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:5.7.2 mode:remove_FC converted:05.12.2019

                aichi biodiversity targets,convention on biological diversity,expert assessment,post‐2020,smart framework,strategic plan for biodiversity,convenio sobre la diversidad biológica,evaluación por expertos,marco de trabajo smart,plan estratégico para la biodiversidad,objetivos de biodiversidad de aichi


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