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      Self-Esteem’s Relations to Empathy and Parenting

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          Abstract

          The article is looking into theoretical and research relations between self-esteem, empathy and parenting. The empirical study was carried out among 199 undergraduate US students and measured empathy (Empathy Quotient and Interpersonal Reactivity Index), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) and perceived parenting (Parental Bonding Instrument). The results showed no direct relation between empathy and self-esteem, as measured by the instruments in this sample. The care dimension of the perceived parenting style of both parents predicted self-esteem levels. Future research is recommended to confirm findings and identify possible mediator between empathy and self-esteem.

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          Most cited references28

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          Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach.

          Mark Davis (1983)
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            A multidimensional approach to individual differences in empathy

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              Patterns of competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families.

              In order to test Maccoby and Martin's revision of Baumrind's conceptual framework, the families of approximately 4,100 14-18-year-olds were classified into 1 of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) on the basis of the adolescents' ratings of their parents on 2 dimensions: acceptance/involvement and strictness/supervision. The youngsters were then contrasted along 4 sets of outcomes: psychosocial development, school achievement, internalized distress, and problem behavior. Results indicate that adolescents who characterize their parents as authoritative score highest on measures of psychosocial competence and lowest on measures of psychological and behavioral dysfunction; the reverse is true for adolescents who describe their parents as neglectful. Adolescents whose parents are characterized as authoritarian score reasonably well on measures indexing obedience and conformity to the standards of adults but have relatively poorer self-conceptions than other youngsters. In contrast, adolescents from indulgent homes evidence a strong sense of self-confidence but report a higher frequency of substance abuse and school misconduct and are less engaged in school. The results provide support for Maccoby and Martin's framework and indicate the need to distinguish between two types of "permissive" families: those that are indulgent and those that are neglectful.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                PSYCT
                Psychol Thought
                Psychological Thought
                Psychol. Thought
                PsychOpen
                1312-7969
                2193-7281
                28 October 2016
                : 9
                : 2
                : 184-196
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Social, Labor and Pedagogical Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Sofia, Bulgaria
                [2]University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania
                Author notes
                [* ]Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski” 15, bul. Tsar Osvoboditel, 1504 Sofia, Bulgaria. violeta.cone@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                psyct.v9i2.194
                10.5964/psyct.v9i2.194
                83541bba-c1c6-4c2f-9845-9e014794529e
                Copyright @ 2016

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 12 July 2016
                : 18 August 2016
                Categories
                Research Articles

                Psychology
                Interpersonal Reactivity Index,self-esteem,Parental Bonding Instrument,empathy,Empathy Quotient,perceived parenting style,Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale,undergraduate students

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