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      Evolution of Two Major Zika Virus Lineages: Implications for Pathology, Immune Response, and Vaccine Development

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          Zika virus (ZIKV) became a public health emergency of global concern in 2015 due to its rapid expansion from French Polynesia to Brazil, spreading quickly throughout the Americas. Its unexpected correlation to neurological impairments and defects, now known as congenital Zika syndrome, brought on an urgency to characterize the pathology and develop safe, effective vaccines. ZIKV genetic analyses have identified two major lineages, Asian and African, which have undergone substantial changes during the past 50 years. Although ZIKV infections have been circulating throughout Africa and Asia for the later part of the 20th century, the symptoms were mild and not associated with serious pathology until now. ZIKV evolution also took the form of novel modes of transmission, including maternal–fetal transmission, sexual transmission, and transmission through the eye. The African and Asian lineages have demonstrated differential pathogenesis and molecular responses in vitro and in vivo. The limited number of human infections prior to the 21st century restricted ZIKV research to in vitro studies, but current animal studies utilize mice deficient in type I interferon (IFN) signaling in order to invoke enhanced viral pathogenesis. This review examines ZIKV strain differences from an evolutionary perspective, discussing how these differentially impact pathogenesis via host immune responses that modulate IFN signaling, and how these differential effects dictate the future of ZIKV vaccine candidates.

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          Most cited references 158

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          Zika virus outbreak on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia.

          In 2007, physicians on Yap Island reported an outbreak of illness characterized by rash, conjunctivitis, and arthralgia. Although serum from some patients had IgM antibody against dengue virus, the illness seemed clinically distinct from previously detected dengue. Subsequent testing with the use of consensus primers detected Zika virus RNA in the serum of the patients but no dengue virus or other arboviral RNA. No previous outbreaks and only 14 cases of Zika virus disease have been previously documented. We obtained serum samples from patients and interviewed patients for information on clinical signs and symptoms. Zika virus disease was confirmed by a finding of Zika virus RNA or a specific neutralizing antibody response to Zika virus in the serum. Patients with IgM antibody against Zika virus who had a potentially cross-reactive neutralizing-antibody response were classified as having probable Zika virus disease. We conducted a household survey to estimate the proportion of Yap residents with IgM antibody against Zika virus and to identify possible mosquito vectors of Zika virus. We identified 49 confirmed and 59 probable cases of Zika virus disease. The patients resided in 9 of the 10 municipalities on Yap. Rash, fever, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis were common symptoms. No hospitalizations, hemorrhagic manifestations, or deaths due to Zika virus were reported. We estimated that 73% (95% confidence interval, 68 to 77) of Yap residents 3 years of age or older had been recently infected with Zika virus. Aedes hensilli was the predominant mosquito species identified. This outbreak of Zika virus illness in Micronesia represents transmission of Zika virus outside Africa and Asia. Although most patients had mild illness, clinicians and public health officials should be aware of the risk of further expansion of Zika virus transmission. 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Zika Virus Associated with Microcephaly.

            A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.
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              Zika virus. I. Isolations and serological specificity.


                Author and article information

                Front Immunol
                Front Immunol
                Front. Immunol.
                Frontiers in Immunology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                18 July 2018
                : 9
                Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine , Atlanta, GA, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: Gkikas Magiorkinis, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece

                Reviewed by: Luciana Barros Arruda, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Jose Luiz Proenca-Modena, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brazil

                *Correspondence: Ioanna Skountzou, iskount@

                Specialty section: This article was submitted to Viral Immunology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Immunology

                Copyright © 2018 Beaver, Lelutiu, Habib and Skountzou.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Figures: 3, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 162, Pages: 17, Words: 15125
                Funded by: National Institutes of Health 10.13039/100000002
                Award ID: 5R01AI111557


                vaccines, evolution, transmission, tissue tropism, phylogeny, immunology, zika virus


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