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      Bionic Control of Cheetah Bounding with a Segmented Spine

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      Applied Bionics and Biomechanics

      Hindawi Publishing Corporation

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          Abstract

          A cheetah model is built to mimic real cheetah and its mechanical and dimensional parameters are derived from the real cheetah. In particular, two joints in spine and four joints in a leg are used to realize the motion of segmented spine and segmented legs which are the key properties of the cheetah bounding. For actuating and stabilizing the bounding gait of cheetah, we present a bioinspired controller based on the state-machine. The controller mainly mimics the function of the cerebellum to plan the locomotion and keep the body balance. The haptic sensor and proprioception system are used to detect the trigger of the phase transition. Besides, the vestibular modulation could perceive the pitching angle of the trunk. At last, the cerebellum acts as the CPU to operate the information from the biological sensors. In addition, the calculated results are transmitted to the low-level controller to actuate and stabilize the cheetah bounding. Moreover, the delay feedback control method is employed to plan the motion of the leg joints to stabilize the pitching motion of trunk with the stability criterion. Finally, the cyclic cheetah bounding with biological properties is realized. Meanwhile, the stability and dynamic properties of the cheetah bounding gait are analyzed elaborately.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Central pattern generators for locomotion control in animals and robots: a review.

          The problem of controlling locomotion is an area in which neuroscience and robotics can fruitfully interact. In this article, I will review research carried out on locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs), i.e. neural circuits capable of producing coordinated patterns of high-dimensional rhythmic output signals while receiving only simple, low-dimensional, input signals. The review will first cover neurobiological observations concerning locomotor CPGs and their numerical modelling, with a special focus on vertebrates. It will then cover how CPG models implemented as neural networks or systems of coupled oscillators can be used in robotics for controlling the locomotion of articulated robots. The review also presents how robots can be used as scientific tools to obtain a better understanding of the functioning of biological CPGs. Finally, various methods for designing CPGs to control specific modes of locomotion will be briefly reviewed. In this process, I will discuss different types of CPG models, the pros and cons of using CPGs with robots, and the pros and cons of using robots as scientific tools. Open research topics both in biology and in robotics will also be discussed.
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            The thalamocortical vestibular system in animals and humans.

            The vestibular system provides the brain with sensory signals about three-dimensional head rotations and translations. These signals are important for postural and oculomotor control, as well as for spatial and bodily perception and cognition, and they are subtended by pathways running from the vestibular nuclei to the thalamus, cerebellum and the "vestibular cortex." The present review summarizes current knowledge on the anatomy of the thalamocortical vestibular system and discusses data from electrophysiology and neuroanatomy in animals by comparing them with data from neuroimagery and neurology in humans. Multiple thalamic nuclei are involved in vestibular processing, including the ventroposterior complex, the ventroanterior-ventrolateral complex, the intralaminar nuclei and the posterior nuclear group (medial and lateral geniculate nuclei, pulvinar). These nuclei contain multisensory neurons that process and relay vestibular, proprioceptive and visual signals to the vestibular cortex. In non-human primates, the parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC) has been proposed as the core vestibular region. Yet, vestibular responses have also been recorded in the somatosensory cortex (area 2v, 3av), intraparietal sulcus, posterior parietal cortex (area 7), area MST, frontal cortex, cingulum and hippocampus. We analyze the location of the corresponding regions in humans, and especially the human PIVC, by reviewing neuroimaging and clinical work. The widespread vestibular projections to the multimodal human PIVC, somatosensory cortex, area MST, intraparietal sulcus and hippocampus explain the large influence of vestibular signals on self-motion perception, spatial navigation, internal models of gravity, one's body perception and bodily self-consciousness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              The precision of proprioceptive position sense.

              The purpose of this study was to determine the precision of proprioceptive localization of the hand in humans. We derived spatial probability distributions which describe the precision of localization on the basis of three different sources of information: proprioceptive information about the left hand, proprioceptive information about the right hand, and visual information. In the experiment subjects were seated at a table and had to perform three different position-matching tasks. In each task, the position of a target and the position of an indicator were available in a different combination of two of these three sources of information. From the spatial distributions of indicated positions in these three conditions, we derived spatial probability distributions for proprioceptive localization of the two hands and for visual localization. For proprioception we found that localization in the radial direction with respect to the shoulder is more precise than localization in the azimuthal direction. The distributions for proprioceptive localization also suggest that hand positions closer to the shoulder are localized more precisely than positions further away. These patterns can be understood from the geometry of the arm. In addition, the variability in the indicated positions suggests that the shoulder and elbow angles are known to the central nervous system with a precision of 0.6-1.1 degrees. This is a considerably better precision than the values reported in studies on perception of these angles. This implies that joint angles, or quantities equivalent to them, are represented in the central nervous system more precisely than they are consciously perceived. For visual localization we found that localization in the azimuthal direction with respect to the cyclopean eye is more precise than localization in the radial direction. The precision of the perception of visual direction is of the order of 0.2-0.6 degrees.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Appl Bionics Biomech
                Appl Bionics Biomech
                ABB
                Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                1176-2322
                1754-2103
                2016
                25 February 2016
                : 2016
                Affiliations
                The State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Laurence Cheze

                Article
                10.1155/2016/5031586
                4808829
                27065749
                Copyright © 2016 C. Wang and S. Wang.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

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