Controlling and managing the degree of phenotypic diversification of microbial populations is a challenging task. This task not only requires detailed knowledge regarding diversification mechanisms but also advances technical setups for the real-time analyses and control of population behavior on single-cell level. In this work, setup, design and operation of the so called segregostat is described which, in contrast to a traditional chemostats, allows the control of phenotypic diversification of microbial populations over time. Two exemplary case studies will be discussed, emphasizing the applicability and versatility of the proposed approach. In detail the phenotypic diversification of Eschericia coli or Pseudomonas putida based on monitoring membrane permeability will be controlled. We show that upon nutrient limitation, cell population tends to diversify into several subpopulations exhibiting distinct phenotypic (non-permeablized and permeablized cells). On-line analysis leads to the determination of the ratio between cells in these two states, which in turn trigger the addition of glucose pulses in order to maintain a pre-defined diversification ratio. These results prove that phenotypic diversification can be controlled by means of defined pulse-frequency modulation within continuously running bioreactor setups. This lays the foundation for systematic studies, not only of phenotypic diversification but also for all processes where dynamics single cell approaches are required, such as synthetic co-culture processes.