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      ¿Son las habilidades matemáticas un asunto de género?: Los estereotipos de género acerca de las matemáticas en niños y niñas de Kínder, sus familias y educadoras Translated title: Is math ability a gender issue?: Gender stereotyoes about math in kindergarten children, their families and teachers

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          Abstract

          En Chile se observa una importante brecha en el logro de matemática a favor de los hombres, tanto en pruebas nacionales como internacionales. Algunas teorías plantean que al menos una parte de estas diferencias podrían ser atribuibles a estereotipos de género relativos a las habilidades matemáticas. Este estudio explora los estereotipos de género, implícitos y explícitos, de estudiantes, madres, padres y educadoras en Santiago de Chile. Participaron 180 niños y niñas de medio-bajo y alto NSE (87 niñas) de kínder, sus padres y las 19 educadoras de sus salas, pertenecientes a colegios y escuelas del área urbana de Santiago, Chile. Se aplicaron medidas de estereotipos explícitos e implícitos a los niños, madres, padres y educadoras. Los resultados mostraron que, en promedio, tanto los adultos como los niños del estudio sostienen un estereotipo que asocia la matemática con el género masculino. En el caso de los niños, los resultados de medidas implícitas mostraron que todos los niños y las niñas de NSE medio-bajo asocian la matemática con lo masculino. Las niñas de NSE alto no asocian la matemática con ningún género. Estos hallazgos sugieren que los estereotipos de género y matemática podrían constituir un factor en las brechas de género en términos de rendimiento matemático observadas en nuestro país y abren posibilidades para el desarrollo de intervenciones y políticas públicas tendientes a ofrecer iguales oportunidades de aprendizaje a niños y niñas, específicamente en los grupos de niñas y madres de NSE medio-bajo, quienes presentan de manera más intensa el estereotipo.

          Translated abstract

          National as well as international standardized assessments reveal that Chile has a large gender gap in math achievement that favors male students. Some theories propose that at least part of this gap can be explained by the effects of gender stereotypes that refer to abilities in math. In the present study, we examine the implicit and explicit gender stereotypes related to math of kindergarten children, their mothers, fathers and teachers in Santiago, Chile. The participants were 180 kindergarteners from mid-low and high SES (87 girls and 93 boys, from 19 classrooms), their parents and classroom teachers, from the urban area of Santiago, Chile. Participants were assessed on explicit and implicit gender stereotypes on math ability. Results show that, on average, both adults and children hold a stereotype that associates math to the male gender. In the case of children, the results of the implicit assessments reveal that all of the boys and mid-low-SES girls relate math to the male gender, while high-SES girls do not associate math to any gender. These findings suggest that math and gender stereotypes could help explain part of the math gender gap present in Chile, and thus suggest opportunities for early interventions and public policies that seek to offer children equal learning opportunities, particularly for girls and mothers from mid-low SES, who most intensely present this stereotype.

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          Most cited references 67

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          A meta-analysis on the correlation between the implicit association test and explicit self-report measures.

          Theoretically, low correlations between implicit and explicit measures can be due to (a) motivational biases in explicit self reports, (b) lack of introspective access to implicitly assessed representations, (c) factors influencing the retrieval of information from memory, (d) method-related characteristics of the two measures, or (e) complete independence of the underlying constructs. The present study addressed these questions from a meta-analytic perspective, investigating the correlation between the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and explicit self-report measures. Based on a sample of 126 studies, the mean effect size was .24, with approximately half of the variability across correlations attributable to moderator variables. Correlations systematically increased as a function of (a) increasing spontaneity of self-reports and (b) increasing conceptual correspondence between measures. These results suggest that implicit and explicit measures are generally related but that higher order inferences and lack of conceptual correspondence can reduce the influence of automatic associations on explicit self-reports.
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            A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept.

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              National differences in gender-science stereotypes predict national sex differences in science and math achievement.

              About 70% of more than half a million Implicit Association Tests completed by citizens of 34 countries revealed expected implicit stereotypes associating science with males more than with females. We discovered that nation-level implicit stereotypes predicted nation-level sex differences in 8th-grade science and mathematics achievement. Self-reported stereotypes did not provide additional predictive validity of the achievement gap. We suggest that implicit stereotypes and sex differences in science participation and performance are mutually reinforcing, contributing to the persistent gender gap in science engagement.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                caledu
                Calidad en la educación
                Calidad en la educación
                Consejo Nacional de Educación (Santiago, , Chile )
                0718-4565
                December 2016
                : 0
                : 45
                : 20-53
                Affiliations
                orgnamePontificia Universidad Católica de Chile orgdiv1Facultad de Educación Chile misusper@ 123456uc.cl
                Santiago orgnameUniversidad Diego Portales orgdiv1Facultad de Educación Chile francisca.delrio@ 123456mail.udp.cl
                Santiago orgnamePontificia Universidad Católica de Chile orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Sociales orgdiv2Escuela de Psicología Chile kstrasse@ 123456uc.cl
                Article
                S0718-45652016000200002
                10.4067/S0718-45652016000200002

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 74, Pages: 34
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