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      Severe hypocalcaemia in a COVID-19 female patient


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          Comorbidities are a risk factor for patients with COVID-19 and the mechanisms of disease remain unclear. The aim of this paper is to present a case report of an COVID-19 patient with severe hypocalcaemia. This is a report of an 81-year-old female, suffered from myalgia and fatigue for more than 3–4 weeks. Fever and cough appear 2 days before she presented to the emergency room. On physical examination, she was febrile with a temperature of 38.8°C, accompanied by cough, sore throat, headache, fatigue, and muscle ache. Her past medical history was remarkable with no chronic disease. She had lymphopenia. Laboratory test revealed moderate liver dysfunction, hypoalbuminemia, and severe hypocalcaemia (serum corrected calcium level: 5.7  mg/dL). Parathyroid hormone (PTH) was 107.9 pg/mL (range: 15–65) and 25(OH)2D levels was 4.5 ng/mL (range: 25–80). Chest CT scan detected peripheral ground-glass opacity. Throat swab for coronavirus by RT-PCRassay tested positive for the virus. She was treated with lopinavir/ritonavir, third generation cephalosporin, anticoagulant, daily high-dose calcium acetate, vitamin D 3, fresh frozen plasma and oxygen therapy. She was discharged after two negative throat swab tests for coronavirus by conventional RT-PCR.

          Learning points
          • Comorbidities are a risk factor for patients with COVID-19.

          • Laboratory findings are unspecific in COVID-19 patients; laboratory abnormalities include lymphopenia, elevated of LDH, CPK and the inflammatory markers, such as C reactive protein, ferritinemia and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

          • In addition to inflammatory markers, in COVID-19 patients it is crucial to check the level of vitamin D and calcium.

          • There may be a correlation between vitamin D deficiency and the severity of COVID-19 disease.

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          Most cited references9

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          Clinical characteristics and outcomes of older patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China (2019): a single-centered, retrospective study

          Abstract Background In December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan city and spread rapidly throughout China and the world. In this study, we aimed to describe the clinical course and outcomes of older patients with COVID-19. Methods This is a retrospective investigation of hospitalized older patients with confirmed COVID-19 at Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from January 1, 2020, to February 10, 2020. Results In total, 203 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19, with a median age of 54 years (interquartile range, 41-68; range, 20-91 years). Men accounted for 108 (53.2%) of the cases, and 55 patients (27.1%) were >65 years of age. Among patients who were 65 years and older, the mortality rate was 34.5% (19/55), which was significantly higher than that of younger patients at 4.7% (7/148). Common symptoms of older patients with COVID-19 included fever (94.5%; n=52), dry cough (69.1%; n=38), and chest distress (63.6%; n=35). Compared with young patients, older patients had more laboratory abnormalities and comorbidities. Through a multivariate analysis of the causes of death in older patients, we found that males, comorbidities, time from disease onset to hospitalization, abnormal kidney function, and elevated procalcitonin levels were all significantly associated with death. Conclusions In the recent outbreak of COVID-19, our local hospital in Wuhan found that patients aged 65 and older had greater initial comorbidities, more severe symptoms, and were more likely to experience multi-organ involvement and death, as compared with younger patients.
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            Editorial: low population mortality from COVID‐19 in countries south of latitude 35 degrees North supports vitamin D as a factor determining severity

            LINKED CONTENT This article is linked to Al‐Ani et al and Garg et al papers. To view these articles, visit https://doi.org/10.1111/apt.15779 and https://doi.org/10.1111/apt.15796.
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              Serum calcium as a biomarker of clinical severity and prognosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019

              The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between serum calcium and clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this retrospective study, serum calcium levels, hormone levels and clinical laboratory parameters on admission were recorded. The clinical outcome variables were also recorded. From February 10 to February 28, 2020, 241 patients were enrolled. Of these patients, 180 (74.7%) had hypocalcemia on admission. The median serum calcium levels were 2.12 (IQR, 2.04-2.20) mmol/L, median parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were 55.27 (IQR, 42.73-73.15) pg/mL, and median 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (VD) levels were 10.20 (IQR, 8.20-12.65) ng/mL. The serum calcium levels were significantly positively correlated with VD levels (P =0.004) but negatively correlated with PTH levels (P =0.048). Patients with lower serum calcium levels (especially ≤2.0 mmol/L) had worse clinical parameters, higher incidences of organ injury and septic shock, and higher 28-day mortality. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, septic shock, and 28-day mortality were 0.923 (P <0.001), 0.905 (P =0.001), and 0.929 (P <0.001), respectively. In conclusion, serum calcium was associated with the clinical severity and prognosis of patients with COVID-19. Hypocalcemia may be associated with imbalanced VD and PTH levels.

                Author and article information

                Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep
                Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep
                Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
                Bioscientifica Ltd (Bristol )
                27 January 2021
                : 2021
                : 20-0097
                [1 ]Service of Infection Diseases , University Hospital Center, Tirane, Albania
                [2 ]Service of Endocrinology , Amerikan Hospital, Tirane, Albania
                [3 ]Service of Anaesthesia and Reanimation , University Hospital Center, Tirane, Albania
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to E Puca; Email: entelalamcaj@ 123456yahoo.com
                © 2021 The authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License..

                : 07 September 2020
                : 26 November 2020
                General Practice
                New Disease or Syndrome: Presentations/Diagnosis/Management
                New Disease or Syndrome: Presentations/Diagnosis/Management

                geriatric,male,white,albania,thyroid,general practice,new disease or syndrome: presentations/diagnosis/management,january,2021


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