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      Pathogenic role of inflammatory response during Shiga toxin-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)

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          Most cited references 106

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          Neutrophil extracellular traps kill bacteria.

          Neutrophils engulf and kill bacteria when their antimicrobial granules fuse with the phagosome. Here, we describe that, upon activation, neutrophils release granule proteins and chromatin that together form extracellular fibers that bind Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. These neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) degrade virulence factors and kill bacteria. NETs are abundant in vivo in experimental dysentery and spontaneous human appendicitis, two examples of acute inflammation. NETs appear to be a form of innate response that binds microorganisms, prevents them from spreading, and ensures a high local concentration of antimicrobial agents to degrade virulence factors and kill bacteria.
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            Recognition of commensal microflora by toll-like receptors is required for intestinal homeostasis.

            Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in host defense against microbial infection. The microbial ligands recognized by TLRs are not unique to pathogens, however, and are produced by both pathogenic and commensal microorganisms. It is thought that an inflammatory response to commensal bacteria is avoided due to sequestration of microflora by surface epithelia. Here, we show that commensal bacteria are recognized by TLRs under normal steady-state conditions, and this interaction plays a crucial role in the maintenance of intestinal epithelial homeostasis. Furthermore, we find that activation of TLRs by commensal microflora is critical for the protection against gut injury and associated mortality. These findings reveal a novel function of TLRs-control of intestinal epithelial homeostasis and protection from injury-and provide a new perspective on the evolution of host-microbial interactions.
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              Extracellular DNA traps promote thrombosis.

              Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are part of the innate immune response to infections. NETs are a meshwork of DNA fibers comprising histones and antimicrobial proteins. Microbes are immobilized in NETs and encounter a locally high and lethal concentration of effector proteins. Recent studies show that NETs are formed inside the vasculature in infections and noninfectious diseases. Here we report that NETs provide a heretofore unrecognized scaffold and stimulus for thrombus formation. NETs perfused with blood caused platelet adhesion, activation, and aggregation. DNase or the anticoagulant heparin dismantled the NET scaffold and prevented thrombus formation. Stimulation of platelets with purified histones was sufficient for aggregation. NETs recruited red blood cells, promoted fibrin deposition, and induced a red thrombus, such as that found in veins. Markers of extracellular DNA traps were detected in a thrombus and plasma of baboons subjected to deep vein thrombosis, an example of inflammation-enhanced thrombosis. Our observations indicate that NETs are a previously unrecognized link between inflammation and thrombosis and may further explain the epidemiological association of infection with thrombosis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pediatric Nephrology
                Pediatr Nephrol
                Springer Nature
                0931-041X
                1432-198X
                November 2018
                January 25 2018
                November 2018
                : 33
                : 11
                : 2057-2071
                Article
                10.1007/s00467-017-3876-0
                © 2018

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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