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      Non-Lipid-Related Effects of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase Inhibitors

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          Abstract

          With the increasing knowledge of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, it appears that in the future the prevention of cardiovascular disease will involve not only risk factor correction, but also direct pharmacological control of processes occurring in the arterial wall. Among these, a pivotal role is played by smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration and proliferation, which, together with lipid deposition, are prominent features of atherogenesis and restenosis after angioplasty. Mevalonate and other intermediates of cholesterol synthesis (isoprenoids) are essential for cell growth, hence drugs affecting this metabolic pathway are potential antiatherosclerotic agents. Recently, we provided in vitro and in vivo evidence that fluvastatin, simvastatin and lovastatin, but not pravastatin, decrease SMC migration and proliferation dose dependently, independently of their hypocholesterolemic properties. The in vitro inhibition of cell migration and proliferation induced by simvastatin and fluvastatin (70-90% decrease) was prevented completely by the addition of mevalonate, and partially prevented by farnesol and geranylgeraniol (80%), confirming the specific role of isoprenoid metabolites in regulating these cellular events, probably through prenylated protein(s). The in vivo antiproliferative activity of fluvastatin on neointimal hyperplasia in normocholesterolemic rabbits was also prevented fully by the local delivery of mevalonate, by means of an Alzet pump. Fluvastatin and simvastatin also inhibited cholesterol esterification and deposition induced by acetylated LDL in cultured macrophages. This effect was fully prevented by the addition of mevalonate or geranylgeraniol. Taken together, these results suggest that, beyond their effects on plasma lip-ids, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors exert a direct antiatherosclerotic effect on the arterial wall, probably through local inhibition of isoprenoid biosynthesis.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          CRD
          Cardiology
          10.1159/issn.0008-6312
          Cardiology
          S. Karger AG
          0008-6312
          1421-9751
          1996
          1996
          19 November 2008
          : 87
          : 6
          : 458-468
          Affiliations
          aInstitute of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, and bInstitute of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy, University of Parma, Italy
          Article
          177139 Cardiology 1996;87:458–468
          10.1159/000177139
          8904671
          © 1996 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 11
          Categories
          Review

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