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      Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1): a potential therapeutic target for cancer

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      Cancer Biology & Therapy

      Informa UK Limited

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          Most cited references 88

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          Beta-catenin regulates expression of cyclin D1 in colon carcinoma cells.

          Mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour-suppressor gene occur in most human colon cancers. Loss of functional APC protein results in the accumulation of beta-catenin. Mutant forms of beta-catenin have been discovered in colon cancers that retain wild-type APC genes, and also in melanomas, medulloblastomas, prostate cancer and gastric and hepatocellular carcinomas. The accumulation of beta-catenin activates genes that are responsive to transcription factors of the TCF/LEF family, with which beta-catenin interacts. Here we show that beta-catenin activates transcription from the cyclin D1 promoter, and that sequences within the promoter that are related to consensus TCF/LEF-binding sites are necessary for activation. The oncoprotein p21ras further activates transcription of the cyclin D1 gene, through sites within the promoter that bind the transcriptional regulators Ets or CREB. Cells expressing mutant beta-catenin produce high levels of cyclin D1 messenger RNA and protein constitutively. Furthermore, expression of a dominant-negative form of TCF in colon-cancer cells strongly inhibits expression of cyclin D1 without affecting expression of cyclin D2, cyclin E, or cyclin-dependent kinases 2, 4 or 6. This dominant-negative TCF causes cells to arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle; this phenotype can be rescued by expression of cyclin D1 under the cytomegalovirus promoter. Abnormal levels of beta-catenin may therefore contribute to neoplastic transformation by causing accumulation of cyclin D1.
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            Mechanisms of endocrine resistance in breast cancer.

            The estrogen receptor (ER) pathway plays a pivotal role in breast cancer development and progression. Endocrine therapy to block the ER pathway is highly effective, but its usefulness is limited by common intrinsic and acquired resistance. Multiple mechanisms responsible for endocrine resistance have been proposed and include deregulation of various components of the ER pathway itself, alterations in cell cycle and cell survival signaling molecules, and the activation of escape pathways that can provide tumors with alternative proliferative and survival stimuli. Among these, increased expression or signaling of growth factor receptor pathways, especially the EGFR/HER2 pathway, has been associated with both experimental and clinical endocrine therapy resistance. New treatment combinations targeting both ER and growth factor receptor signaling to block the crosstalk between these pathways and eliminate escape routes have been proven highly effective in preclinical models. Results of recent clinical studies, while partly supporting this approach, also highlight the need to better identify a priori the patients whose tumors are most likely to benefit from these specific cotargeting strategies.
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              Identification of c-MYC as a Target of the APC Pathway

               T He (1998)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cancer Biology & Therapy
                Cancer Biology & Therapy
                Informa UK Limited
                1538-4047
                1555-8576
                March 16 2015
                July 03 2015
                May 07 2015
                July 03 2015
                : 16
                : 7
                : 997-1004
                Article
                10.1080/15384047.2015.1045693
                © 2015

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