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      Environmental assessment of casual dining restaurants in urban and suburban areas of peninsular Malaysia during the COVID-19 pandemic


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          Food waste has been considered a global problem due to its adverse impacts on food security, the environment, and the economy; hence needs urgent attention and action. Its generation is expected to increase as the world population grows rapidly, leading to more global waste. This study sought the impacts of the COVID-19 outbreak on the 1-week operation of selected casual dining restaurants in urban (Ampang, Kuala Lumpur) and suburban areas (Kota Bharu, Kelantan and Jasin, Melaka) of Peninsular Malaysia, as the local community adjusted to life with COVID-19. The food waste in this study was classified into three categories: preparation loss, serving loss, and customer’s plate waste. Our material flow analysis revealed that the highest food loss at these locations came from preparation loss (51.37%), followed by serving loss (30.95%), and preparation loss (17.8%). Meanwhile, the total average electricity consumption and its carbon footprint for Ampang were 127 kWh and 13.87 kgCO 2e, Kota Bharu 269.8 kWh and 29.47 kgCO 2e, and Jasin 142.2 kWh and 15.54 kgCO 2e, respectively. As for water, Ampang exhibited 22.93 m 3 total average consumption and 7.91 kgCO 2e greenhouse emissions from this source, Jasin consuming 17.11 m 3 of water and releasing 5.88 kgCO 2e of carbon footprint, while Kota Bharu emitted 20.21 kgCO 2e of greenhouse gases from its 58.71 m 3 water consumption. Our findings indicate a major ‘food leak’ at the preparation stage, from which the waste could be utilised as livestock feed, and that electricity consumption is a greater carbon emitter than water consumption, suggesting a need for improvement to the kitchen practices and equipment.

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          Most cited references28

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          The green, blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products

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            Lost food, wasted resources: global food supply chain losses and their impacts on freshwater, cropland, and fertiliser use.

            Reducing food losses and waste is considered to be one of the most promising measures to improve food security in the coming decades. Food losses also affect our use of resources, such as freshwater, cropland, and fertilisers. In this paper we estimate the global food supply losses due to lost and wasted food crops, and the resources used to produce them. We also quantify the potential food supply and resource savings that could be made by reducing food losses and waste. We used publically available global databases to conduct the study at the country level. We found that around one quarter of the produced food supply (614 kcal/cap/day) is lost within the food supply chain (FSC). The production of these lost and wasted food crops accounts for 24% of total freshwater resources used in food crop production (27 m(3)/cap/yr), 23% of total global cropland area (31 × 10(-3)ha/cap/yr), and 23% of total global fertiliser use (4.3 kg/cap/yr). The per capita use of resources for food losses is largest in North Africa & West-Central Asia (freshwater and cropland) and North America & Oceania (fertilisers). The smallest per capita use of resources for food losses is found in Sub-Saharan Africa (freshwater and fertilisers) and in Industrialised Asia (cropland). Relative to total food production, the smallest food supply and resource losses occur in South & Southeast Asia. If the lowest loss and waste percentages achieved in any region in each step of the FSC could be reached globally, food supply losses could be halved. By doing this, there would be enough food for approximately one billion extra people. Reducing the food losses and waste would thus be an important step towards increased food security, and would also increase the efficiency of resource use in food production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              COVID-19: the First Documented Coronavirus Pandemic in History

              The novel human coronavirus disease COVID-19 has become the fifth documented pandemic since the 1918 flu pandemic. COVID-19 was first reported in Wuhan, China, and subsequently spread worldwide. The coronavirus was officially named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses based on phylogenetic analysis. SARS-CoV-2 is believed to be a spillover of an animal coronavirus and later adapted the ability of human-to-human transmission. Because the virus is highly contagious, it rapidly spreads and continuously evolves in the human population. In this review article, we discuss the basic properties, potential origin, and evolution of the novel human coronavirus. These factors may be critical for studies of pathogenicity, antiviral designs, and vaccine development against the virus.

                Author and article information

                Environ Monit Assess
                Environ Monit Assess
                Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                31 January 2023
                : 195
                : 2
                : 346
                [1 ]GRID grid.412259.9, ISNI 0000 0001 2161 1343, Faculty of Health Sciences, , Centre of Environmental Health and Safety, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), ; Kampus Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
                [2 ]GRID grid.412889.e, ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0706, School of Industrial Engineering, , Universidad de Costa Rica, ; San José, Costa Rica
                © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2023, Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

                : 21 June 2022
                : 12 January 2023
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100004625, Universiti Teknologi MARA;
                Award ID: DANA UiTM Cawangan Selangor [grant number 600-UITMSEL (PI. 5/4) (022/2020)]
                Award Recipient :
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                © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2023

                General environmental science
                foodservice industry,waste generation,material flow analysis,carbon footprint,pandemic outbreak


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