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      Osteoarthritis prevalence and modifiable factors: a population study

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          This study’s objectives were to investigate the prevalence of self-reported knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA) stratified by age and sex and to examine the association of modifiable factors with knee and hip OA prevalence. The study was conducted using randomly sampled data gathered from four communities in the province of Alberta, Canada.


          A large adult population sample ( N = 4733) of individuals ≥18 years were selected. Health-related information was collected through telephone interviews and community measurement clinics for which a sub-sample ( N = 1808) attended. Participants self-reported OA during telephone interviews. Clinic interviews further assessed if the diagnosis was made by a health care professional. Statistical analyses compared prevalence of OA between sexes and across age categories. Associations between modifiable factors for OA and the prevalence of knee and hip OA were assessed using binary logistic regression modelling.


          Overall prevalence of self-reported OA in the total sample was 14.8 %, where 10.5 % of individuals reported having knee OA and 8.5 % reported having hip OA. Differences in prevalence were found for males and females across age categories for both knee and hip OA. In terms of modifiable factors, being obese (BMI >30 kg/m2) was significantly associated with the prevalence of knee (OR: 4.37; 95 % CI: 2.08,9.20) and hip (OR: 2.52; 95 % CI: 1.17,5.43) OA. Individuals who stand or walk a lot, but do not carry or lift things during their occupational activities were 2.0 times less likely to have hip OA (OR: 0.50; 95 % CI: 0.26,0.96). Individuals who usually lift or carry light loads or have to climb stairs or hills were 2.2 times less likely to have hip OA (OR: 0.45; 95 % CI: 0.21,0.95). The odds of having hip OA were 1.9 times lower in individuals consuming recommended or higher vitamin C intake (OR: 0.52; 95 % CI: 0.29,0.96). Significant differences in prevalence were found for both males and females across age categories.


          The prevalence of knee and hip OA obtained in this study is comparable to other studies. Females have greater knee OA prevalence and a greater proportion of women have mobility limitations as well as hip and knee pain; it is important to target this sub-group.

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          Most cited references 55

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          A Coefficient of Agreement for Nominal Scales

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            The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data.

             G Koch,  J R Landis (1977)
            This paper presents a general statistical methodology for the analysis of multivariate categorical data arising from observer reliability studies. The procedure essentially involves the construction of functions of the observed proportions which are directed at the extent to which the observers agree among themselves and the construction of test statistics for hypotheses involving these functions. Tests for interobserver bias are presented in terms of first-order marginal homogeneity and measures of interobserver agreement are developed as generalized kappa-type statistics. These procedures are illustrated with a clinical diagnosis example from the epidemiological literature.
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              The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data


                Author and article information

                61 2 4985 4465 ,
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BioMed Central (London )
                30 November 2015
                30 November 2015
                : 15
                [ ]Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 Australia
                [ ]School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB Canada
                [ ]Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Seattle, Washington, USA
                [ ]Centre for Nursing and Health Studies, Athabasca University, Athabasca, AB Canada
                © Plotnikoff et al. 2015

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Research Article
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                © The Author(s) 2015

                Public health

                hip osteoarthritis, knee osteoarthritis, prevalence, risk-factors


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