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      Ocean warming and acidification modulate energy budget and gill ion regulatory mechanisms in Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua)

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          Abstract

          Ocean warming and acidification are threatening marine ecosystems. In marine animals, acidification is thought to enhance ion regulatory costs and thereby baseline energy demand, while elevated temperature also increases baseline metabolic rate. Here we investigated standard metabolic rates (SMR) and plasma parameters of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) after 3–4 weeks of exposure to ambient and future PCO 2 levels (550, 1200 and 2200 µatm) and at two temperatures (10, 18 °C). In vivo branchial ion regulatory costs were studied in isolated, perfused gill preparations. Animals reared at 18 °C responded to increasing CO 2 by elevating SMR, in contrast to specimens at 10 °C. Isolated gills at 10 °C and elevated PCO 2 (≥1200 µatm) displayed increased soft tissue mass, in parallel to increased gill oxygen demand, indicating an increased fraction of gill in whole animal energy budget. Altered gill size was not found at 18 °C, where a shift in the use of ion regulation mechanisms occurred towards enhanced Na +/H +-exchange and HCO 3 transport at high PCO 2 (2200 µatm), paralleled by higher Na +/K +-ATPase activities. This shift did not affect total gill energy consumption leaving whole animal energy budget unaffected. Higher Na +/K +-ATPase activities in the warmth might have compensated for enhanced branchial permeability and led to reduced plasma Na + and/or Cl concentrations and slightly lowered osmolalities seen at 18 °C and 550 or 2200 µatm PCO 2 in vivo. Overall, the gill as a key ion regulation organ seems to be highly effective in supporting the resilience of cod to effects of ocean warming and acidification.

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          Climate change affects marine fishes through the oxygen limitation of thermal tolerance.

          A cause-and-effect understanding of climate influences on ecosystems requires evaluation of thermal limits of member species and of their ability to cope with changing temperatures. Laboratory data available for marine fish and invertebrates from various climatic regions led to the hypothesis that, as a unifying principle, a mismatch between the demand for oxygen and the capacity of oxygen supply to tissues is the first mechanism to restrict whole-animal tolerance to thermal extremes. We show in the eelpout, Zoarces viviparus, a bioindicator fish species for environmental monitoring from North and Baltic Seas (Helcom), that thermally limited oxygen delivery closely matches environmental temperatures beyond which growth performance and abundance decrease. Decrements in aerobic performance in warming seas will thus be the first process to cause extinction or relocation to cooler waters.
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            The multifunctional fish gill: dominant site of gas exchange, osmoregulation, acid-base regulation, and excretion of nitrogenous waste.

            The fish gill is a multipurpose organ that, in addition to providing for aquatic gas exchange, plays dominant roles in osmotic and ionic regulation, acid-base regulation, and excretion of nitrogenous wastes. Thus, despite the fact that all fish groups have functional kidneys, the gill epithelium is the site of many processes that are mediated by renal epithelia in terrestrial vertebrates. Indeed, many of the pathways that mediate these processes in mammalian renal epithelial are expressed in the gill, and many of the extrinsic and intrinsic modulators of these processes are also found in fish endocrine tissues and the gill itself. The basic patterns of gill physiology were outlined over a half century ago, but modern immunological and molecular techniques are bringing new insights into this complicated system. Nevertheless, substantial questions about the evolution of these mechanisms and control remain.
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              Seasonal variation of CO2and nutrients in the high-latitude surface oceans: A comparative study

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +49(471)4831-1340 , Corneliakreiss@gmail.com
                Journal
                J Comp Physiol B
                J. Comp. Physiol. B, Biochem. Syst. Environ. Physiol
                Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                0174-1578
                1432-136X
                29 July 2015
                29 July 2015
                2015
                : 185
                : 7
                : 767-781
                Affiliations
                [ ]Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Center for Marine and Polar Research, Integrative Ecophysiology, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany
                [ ]Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, PO Box 463, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden
                [ ]The Sven Lovén Centre for Marine Sciences, Kristineberg 566, 451 78 Fiskebäckskil, Sweden
                Author notes

                Communicated by G. Heldmaier.

                Article
                923
                10.1007/s00360-015-0923-7
                4568026
                26219611
                83bda6c7-2332-4355-8b7a-cbb5426dd428
                © The Author(s) 2015

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                History
                : 1 December 2014
                : 29 June 2015
                : 15 July 2015
                Categories
                Original Paper
                Custom metadata
                © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

                Anatomy & Physiology
                na+/k+-atpase,h+-atpase,hco3− transporter,na+/h+-exchanger,standard metabolic rate,osmolality

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