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      Non-infectious complications of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and their impact on technique survival

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          Abstract

          Data on non-infectious complications of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) are sparingly reported from different centres of the country. We studied the non-infectious complications in patients of end stage-renal disease (ESRD) undergoing CAPD. Double-cuffed straight catheter was inserted in all patients using the surgical method and CAPD was started on the 15 th day of catheter insertion. The nature of non-infectious complications was noted during follow-up in these patients. Forty-five (male 31, female 14) patients with the mean age of 54.5±11.6 years were studied. Diabetic nephropathy was the most common (59.5%) cause of ESRD. Overall, non-infectious complications were noted in 18/45 (40%) cases. Ultrafiltration failure was the most common (15.5%) followed by incisional hernia (6.6%), exit site leak (4.4%), hydrothorax (4.4%), catheter malposition (4.4%), scrotal swelling (2.2%) and hemoperitoneum (2.2%). Patients with ultrafiltration failure were either shifted to hemodialysis or underwent renal transplantation. The remaining (62%) non-infectious complications did not affect the catheter survival and CAPD could be continued. Non-infectious complications occurred in 40% of our CAPD patients and ultrafiltration failure was the most common (15.5%). A majority (62%) of the complications did not affect catheter survival.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis: definition, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis Ad Hoc Committee on Ultrafiltration Management in Peritoneal Dialysis.

          Current definitions of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis are practical and clinically relevant. It is important to adhere to a more uniform use of the proper terminology, and it is the recommendation of the authors that EPS be adopted as the more appropriate term. The best literal definition of EPS is based on clinical-pathologic criteria. Differentiation of EPS from the general category of ultrafiltration failure is required. Further, better appreciation of the diverse pathways that can lead to the same final common clinical-pathologic picture should not be overshadowed by the requirement of uniform terminology. Incidence and prevalence of the syndrome have been defined in some large populations and a few single-center experiences. The former show an incidence of less than 1%, while higher percentages are reported in the latter. The reported increased incidence with duration on therapy requires validation. The epidemiology of the syndrome offers limited insight into its pathogenesis. A list of factors, both dialysis-related and non dialysis-related. has been accumulated. Except in a few categories where agents are clearly related to the development of EPS, the majority of the listed factors for dialysis-related BPS remain, at best, associations and at worst, simple conjecture. The same limitations that plague the issue of etiology apply in the area of pathogenesis. More basic, focused work is required. The diagnosis of EPS remains based on clinical suspicion confirmed with, primarily, radiologic findings. Pathologic confirmation is obtained in cases that come to surgery for management or for catheter removal. Radiologic studies are precise enough for confirmation, but none have been evaluated for early diagnosis for possible early intervention or prevention. Studies based on transport characteristics or effluent dialysate constituents are not useful for EPS. At present, there are no reliable predictive tests for BPS that can be used in individual patients. Therapy of BPS is based on anecdotal evidence. The possible variable etiologies and probable distinct pathways leading to the syndrome may make a uniform therapeutic approach unlikely. Further, the limited number of cases and the sporadic pattern of occurrences make therapeutic trials not readily feasible. This is distinct from the case of ultrafiltration failure, where significant advances in mechanism elucidation and rationale-based interventions have been made.
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            Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis--a clinician's approach to diagnosis and medical treatment.

            Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is recognized as a serious complication of continuous peritoneal dialysis. A preliminary diagnosis of EPSis usually based on clinical signs and symptoms, which commonly include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal fullness, an abdominal mass, bowel obstruction, and radiologic findings, including abdominal roentgenogram, contrast studies, ultrasound studies, and computed tomography. The diagnosis is confirmed by laparoscopy or laparotomy showing the characteristic gross thickening of the peritoneum enclosing some or all of the small intestine in a cocoon of opaque tissue. A variety of therapeutic approaches to EPS have been reported. This review discusses medical treatment of EPS and includes an overview of the clinical features and diagnostic aspects of the condition.
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              Sclerosing peritonitis: the experience in Australia.

               R Rigby,  C Hawley (1997)
              Sclerosing peritonitis (SP) is a rare but serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Small-bowel obstruction (SBO) due to encapsulation, dense adhesions, or mural fibrous is characteristic, often associated with peritonitis. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence, clinical features, effect of duration of dialysis, and other possible aetiological factors in severe SP. All dialysis units in Australia were surveyed for possible cases up to 1994. Patients were included if there was either surgical or radiological evidence of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis or SBO with tanned or thickened peritoneum in the absence of other causes of SBO. Fifty-four patients were analysed. The duration of continuous PD was mean 52 +/- 30 months, median 48 months and range 8-127 months. Nineteen cases were diagnosed between 1980 and 1989 and 35 between 1990 and 1994, giving mean annual incidences 1.9 and 4.2 per 1000 PD periods respectively. The overall prevalence was 0.7%, which increased progressively with the duration of PD being 1.9, 6.4, 10.8, and 19.4% for patients on dialysis for > 2, 5, 6 and 8 years respectively. Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis was diagnosed in 87% of cases, SBO in 92%, and haemoperitoneum in 8%. Peritoneal calcification was present in seven cases, all of which had been on PD > 7 years. Peritonitis was associated with 38% of cases with fungal infection in 7%. Treatment with immunosuppression in five patients appeared to result in a favourable outcome in three. The mortality rate was 56%. Severe sclerosing peritonitis is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis and there is a time dependent increase on CAPD.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Indian J Nephrol
                IJN
                Indian Journal of Nephrology
                Medknow Publications (India )
                0971-4065
                1998-3662
                Apr-Jun 2011
                : 21
                : 2
                : 112-115
                Affiliations
                Department of Nephrology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Jai Prakash, Department of Nephrology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India. E-mail: jpojha555@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                IJN-21-112
                10.4103/0971-4065.82125
                3132330
                21769174
                Copyright: © Indian Journal of Nephrology

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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