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      Major Difficulties the US Nephrologist Faces in Providing Adequate Dialysis

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      Blood Purification

      S. Karger AG

      Dialysis adequacy, Medical economics

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          Abstract

          Aim: To identify the major difficulties nephrologists in the US face in providing adequate dialysis. Methods: To identify the perceived obstacles to achieving adequate dialysis in the US, 30 clinical support specialists responsible for nursing education and training were polled. Their responses together with those found in the recent literature were summarized and analyzed. Results: The obstacles identified fell into the following major categories: (1) economic; (2) personnel shortage; (3) education, and (4) cultural. The principal specific difficulties identified in providing adequate dialysis were the provision of sufficient time and frequency of dialysis, adequate volume control and vascular and peritoneal access. Conclusions: The obstacles we currently face are serious but can be conquered through better understanding of the problems and education of professionals, patients and payers. The simple improvement in two specific areas, the creation of more native arteriovenous fistulae and growth of home dialysis, are identified as the highest priorities to overcome these obstacles.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Type of vascular access and mortality in U.S. hemodialysis patients.

          Vascular access (VA) complications account for 16 to 25% of hospital admissions. This study tested the hypothesis that the type of VA in use is correlated with overall mortality and cause-specific mortality. Data were analyzed from the U.S. Renal Data System Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study Wave 1, a random sample of 5507 patients, prevalent on hemodialysis as of December 31, 1993. The relative mortality risk during a two-year observation was analyzed by Cox-regression methods with adjustments for demographic and comorbid conditions. Using similar methods, cause-specific analyses also were performed for death caused by infection and cardiac causes. In diabetic mellitus (DM) patients with end-stage renal disease, the associated relative mortality risk was higher for those with arteriovenous graft (AVG; RR = 1.41, P < 0.003) and central venous catheter (CVC; RR = 1.54, P < 0.002) as compared with arteriovenous fistula (AVF). In non-DM patients, those with CVC had a higher associated mortality (RR = 1.70, P < 0.001), as did to a lesser degree those with AVG (RR = 1.08, P = 0.35) when compared with AVF. Cause-specific analyses found higher infection-related deaths for CVC (RR = 2.30, P < 0.06) and AVG (RR = 2.47, P < 0.02) compared with AVF in DM; in non-DM, risk was higher also for CVC (RR = 1.83, P < 0.04) and AVG (RR = 1.27, P < 0.33). In contrast to our hypothesis that AV shunting increases cardiac risk, deaths caused by cardiac causes were higher in CVC than AVF for both DM (RR = 1.47, P < 0.05) and non-DM (RR = 1.34, P < 0.05) patients. This case-mix adjusted analysis suggests that CVC and AVG are correlated with increased mortality risk when compared with AVF, both overall and by major causes of death.
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            Nonadherence in hemodialysis: associations with mortality, hospitalization, and practice patterns in the DOPPS.

            Nonadherence among hemodialysis patients compromises dialysis delivery, which could influence patient morbidity and mortality. The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) provides a unique opportunity to review this problem and its determinants on a global level. Nonadherence was studied using data from the DOPPS, an international, observational, prospective hemodialysis study. Patients were considered nonadherent if they skipped one or more sessions per month, shortened one or more sessions by more than 10 minutes per month, had a serum potassium level openface>6.0 mEq/L, a serum phosphate level openface>7.5 mg/dL (>2.4 mmol/L), or interdialytic weight gain (IDWG)>5.7% of body weight. Predictors of nonadherence were identified using logistic regression. Survival analysis used the Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for case-mix. Skipping treatment was associated with increased mortality [relative risk (RR) = 1.30, P = 0.01], as were excessive IDWG (RR = 1.12, P = 0.047) and high phosphate levels (RR = 1.17, P = 0.001). Skipping also was associated with increased hospitalization (RR = 1.13, P = 0.04), as were high phosphate levels (RR = 1.07, P = 0.05). Larger facility size (per 10 patients) was associated with higher odds ratios (OR) of skipping (OR = 1.03, P = 0.06), shortening (OR = 1.03, P = 0.05), and IDWG (OR = 1.02, P = 0.07). An increased percentage of highly trained staff hours was associated with lower OR of skipping (OR = 0.84 per 10%, P = 0.02); presence of a dietitian was associated with lower OR of excessive IDWG (OR = 0.75, P = 0.08). Nonadherence was associated with increased mortality risk (skipping treatment, excessive IDWG, and high phosphate) and with hospitalization risk (skipping, high phosphate). Certain patient/facility characteristics also were associated with nonadherence.
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              Vascular access use in Europe and the United States: results from the DOPPS.

              A direct broad-based comparison of vascular access use and survival in Europe (EUR) and the United States (US) has not been performed previously. Case series reports suggest that vascular access practices differ substantially in the US and EUR. We report on a representative study (DOPPS) which has used the same data collection protocol for> 6400 hemodialysis (HD) patients to compare vascular access use at 145 US dialysis units and 101 units in five EUR countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom). Logistic analysis evaluated factors associated with native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) versus graft use or permanent access versus catheter use for prevalent and incident HD patients. Times to failure for AVF and graft were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression. AVF was used by 80% of EUR and 24% of US prevalent patients, and was significantly associated with younger age, male gender, lower body mass index, non-diabetic status, lack of peripheral vascular disease, and no angina. After adjusting for these factors, AVF versus graft use was still much higher in EUR than US (AOR=21, P 30 days prior to ESRD compared with 74% in the US (P < 0.0001); pre-ESRD care was associated with increased odds of AVF versus graft use (AOR=1.9, P=0.01). New HD patients had a 1.8-fold greater odds (P=0.002) of starting HD with a permanent access if a facility's typical time from referral to access placement was < or =2 weeks. AVF use when compared to grafts was substantially lower (AOR=0.61, P=0.04) when surgery trainees assisted or performed access placements. When used as a patient's first access, AVF survival was superior to grafts regarding time to first failure (RR=0.53, P=0.0002), and AVF survival was longer in EUR compared with the US (RR=0.49, P=0.0005). AVF and grafts each displayed better survival if used when initiating HD compared with being used after patients began dialysis with a catheter. Large differences in vascular access use exist between EUR and the US, even after adjustment for patient characteristics. The results strongly suggest that a facility's preferences and approaches to vascular access practice are major determinants of vascular access use.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-8237-7
                978-3-318-01434-1
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2007
                December 2006
                14 December 2006
                : 25
                : 1
                : 48-52
                Affiliations
                Fresenius Medical Care North America, Lexington, Mass., USA
                Article
                96397 Blood Purif 2007;25:48–52
                10.1159/000096397
                17170537
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 27, Pages: 5
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/96397
                Categories
                Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Dialysis adequacy, Medical economics

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