The present study analyzed the effects of cohabitation for 11 days with a sick cage mate on behavior and Ehrlich tumor growth in mice. Pairs of female mice were divided into one control and one experimental group. One mouse of each control pair was kept undisturbed and called ‘healthy companion’ (HC). One animal of each experimental pair of mice was inoculated (i.p.) with 5 × 10<sup>6</sup> Ehrlich tumor cells, and the other, the object of this study, was called ‘sick companion’ (SC). The SC mice presented: (1) increased activity in an open field, (2) increased number of entries and of movements within the plus-maze open arms, (3) similar levels of plus-maze closed-arm exploration, (4) a decrease in the exploratory activity in a hole board, (5) a decrease in the number of white but not red blood cells, and (6) similar corticosterone serum levels. Eleven days after cohabitation with a conspecific, HC and SC mice were injected with 5 ×10<sup>6</sup> Ehrlich tumor cells. Results showed that SC animals presented decreased resistance to the ascitic form of the Ehrlich tumor. The observed data provide experimental evidence that psychosocial stress induced by cohabitation with a sick cage mate changed at the same time some behavioral and physiological parameters, and decreased resistance to Ehrlich tumor. These data are discussed in the light of a possible neuroimmune system interaction.