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      Towards applying NMR relaxometry as a diagnostic tool for bone and soft tissue sarcomas: a pilot study

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          Abstract

          This work explores what Fast Field-Cycling Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (FFC-NMR) relaxometry brings for the study of sarcoma to guide future in vivo analyses of patients. We present the results of an ex vivo pilot study involving 10 cases of biopsy-proven sarcoma and we propose a quantitative method to analyse 1H NMR relaxation dispersion profiles based on a model-free approach describing the main dynamical processes in the tissues and assessing the amplitude of the Quadrupole Relaxation Enhancement effects due to 14N. This approach showed five distinct groups of dispersion profiles indicating five discrete categories of sarcoma, with differences attributable to microstructure and rigidity. Data from tissues surrounding sarcomas indicated very significant variations with the proximity to tumour, which may be attributed to varying water content but also to tissue remodelling processes due to the sarcoma. This pilot study illustrates the potential of FFC relaxometry for the detection and characterisation of sarcoma.

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          Most cited references43

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          Soft-tissue sarcomas of adults; study of pathological prognostic variables and definition of a histopathological grading system.

          The pathological features of 155 adult patients with soft-tissue sarcomas were studied retrospectively, in an attempt to set up a grading system for these tumors. As the first step, seven histological criteria (tumor differentiation, cellularity, importance of nuclear atypia, presence of malignant giant cells, mitosis count, pattern of tumor necrosis and presence of vascular emboli) were evaluated in a monofactorial analysis. Five of these (tumor differentiation, cellularity, mitosis count, tumor necrosis, and vascular emboli) were correlated with the advent of metastases and with survival. A multivariate analysis, using a Cox model, selected a minimal set of three factors (tumor differentiation, mitosis count, and tumor necrosis) the combination of which was necessary and sufficient to retain all the prognostic information. A grading system was elaborated, which turned out to be correlated with the advent of metastasis and with patients' survival. A second multivariate analysis introducing clinical prognostic features showed that the histological grade was the most important prognostic factor for soft-tissue sarcomas. Thus, this grading system appears to be highly interesting because of its prognostic value and the facility of its elaboration. However, its reproducibility should be tested.
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            Chemistry of MRI Contrast Agents: Current Challenges and New Frontiers

            Tens of millions of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams are performed annually around the world. The contrast agents, which improve diagnostic accuracy, are almost exclusively small, hydrophilic gadolinium(III) based chelates. In recent years concerns have arisen surrounding the long-term safety of these compounds, and this has spurred research into alternatives. There has also been a push to develop new molecularly targeted contrast agents or agents that can sense pathological changes in the local environment. This comprehensive review describes the state of the art of clinically approved contrast agents, their mechanism of action, and factors influencing their safety. From there we describe different mechanisms of generating MR image contrast such as relaxation, chemical exchange saturation transfer, and direct detection and the types of molecules that are effective for these purposes. Next we describe efforts to make safer contrast agents either by increasing relaxivity, increasing resistance to metal ion release, or by moving to gadolinium(III)-free alternatives. Finally we survey approaches to make contrast agents more specific for pathology either by direct biochemical targeting or by the design of responsive or activatable contrast agents.
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              Field-cycling NMR relaxometry

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                l.broche@abdn.ac.uk
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                26 August 2020
                26 August 2020
                2020
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.412607.6, ISNI 0000 0001 2149 6795, Department of Physics and Biophysics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, , University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, ; Słoneczna 54, 10-710 Olsztyn, Poland
                [2 ]GRID grid.7107.1, ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7291, Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences and Nutrition, , University of Aberdeen, ; Foresterhill, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD Scotland, UK
                [3 ]GRID grid.7107.1, ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7291, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences and Nutrition, , University of Aberdeen, ; Foresterhill, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD Scotland, UK
                [4 ]GRID grid.7107.1, ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7291, Bio-Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences and Nutrition, , University of Aberdeen, ; Foresterhill, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD Scotland, UK
                [5 ]GRID grid.412607.6, ISNI 0000 0001 2149 6795, Present Address: Faculty of Food Sciences, , University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, ; Michała Oczapowskiego 4, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
                Article
                71067
                10.1038/s41598-020-71067-x
                7449965
                32848198
                83eafa74-6401-4544-878f-7250452eae3e
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: European Cooperation in Science and Technology
                Award ID: CA15209
                Award ID: CA15209
                Award ID: CA15209
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Horizon 2020 Framework Programme
                Award ID: 668119
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Uncategorized
                biophysical methods,molecular biophysics,bone cancer,sarcoma,biomarkers,structure of solids and liquids,biological physics,characterization and analytical techniques

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