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Self-assembly of DNA-functionalized colloids

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      Abstract

      Colloidal particles grafted with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) chains can self-assemble into a number of different crystalline structures, where hybridization of the ssDNA chains creates links between colloids stabilizing their structure. Depending on the geometry and the size of the particles, the grafting density of the ssDNA chains, and the length and choice of DNA sequences, a number of different crystalline structures can be fabricated. However, understanding how these factors contribute synergistically to the self-assembly process of DNA-functionalized nano- or micro-sized particles remains an intensive field of research. Moreover, the fabrication of long-range structures due to kinetic bottlenecks in the self-assembly are additional challenges. Here, we discuss the most recent advances from theory and experiment with particular focus put on recent simulation studies.

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      Most cited references 27

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      We describe the use of gold nanoparticle-oligonucleotide complexes as intracellular gene regulation agents for the control of protein expression in cells. These oligonucleotide-modified nanoparticles have affinity constants for complementary nucleic acids that are higher than their unmodified oligonucleotide counterparts, are less susceptible to degradation by nuclease activity, exhibit greater than 99% cellular uptake, can introduce oligonucleotides at a higher effective concentration than conventional transfection agents, and are nontoxic to the cells under the conditions studied. By chemically tailoring the density of DNA bound to the surface of gold nanoparticles, we demonstrated a tunable gene knockdown.
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        Nanomaterials, such as metal or semiconductor nanoparticles and nanorods, exhibit similar dimensions to those of biomolecules, such as proteins (enzymes, antigens, antibodies) or DNA. The integration of nanoparticles, which exhibit unique electronic, photonic, and catalytic properties, with biomaterials, which display unique recognition, catalytic, and inhibition properties, yields novel hybrid nanobiomaterials of synergetic properties and functions. This review describes recent advances in the synthesis of biomolecule-nanoparticle/nanorod hybrid systems and the application of such assemblies in the generation of 2D and 3D ordered structures in solutions and on surfaces. Particular emphasis is directed to the use of biomolecule-nanoparticle (metallic or semiconductive) assemblies for bioanalytical applications and for the fabrication of bioelectronic devices.
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          Nanoparticle superlattice engineering with DNA.

          A current limitation in nanoparticle superlattice engineering is that the identities of the particles being assembled often determine the structures that can be synthesized. Therefore, specific crystallographic symmetries or lattice parameters can only be achieved using specific nanoparticles as building blocks (and vice versa). We present six design rules that can be used to deliberately prepare nine distinct colloidal crystal structures, with control over lattice parameters on the 25- to 150-nanometer length scale. These design rules outline a strategy to independently adjust each of the relevant crystallographic parameters, including particle size (5 to 60 nanometers), periodicity, and interparticle distance. As such, this work represents an advance in synthesizing tailorable macroscale architectures comprising nanoscale materials in a predictable fashion.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            2015-03-18
            2015-06-16
            1503.05384
            10.5488/CMP.18.22801

            http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

            Custom metadata
            Condens. Matter Phys., 2015, vol. 18, No. 2, 22801
            24 pages, 2 figures, Review Article
            cond-mat.soft
            Bohdan Markiv

            Condensed matter

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