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      Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Key Gene Expression Differences between Diapausing and Non-Diapausing Adults of Culex pipiens

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          Abstract

          Diapause is a critical eco-physiological adaptation for winter survival in the West Nile Virus vector, Culex pipiens, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms that distinguish diapause from non-diapause in this important mosquito species. We used Illumina RNA-seq to simultaneously identify and quantify relative transcript levels in diapausing and non-diapausing adult females. Among 65,623,095 read pairs, we identified 41 genes with significantly different transcript abundances between these two groups. Transcriptome divergences between these two phenotypes include genes related to juvenile hormone synthesis, anaerobic metabolism, innate immunity and cold tolerance.

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          Most cited references33

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          The C-type lectin-like domain superfamily.

          The superfamily of proteins containing C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs) is a large group of extracellular Metazoan proteins with diverse functions. The CTLD structure has a characteristic double-loop ('loop-in-a-loop') stabilized by two highly conserved disulfide bridges located at the bases of the loops, as well as a set of conserved hydrophobic and polar interactions. The second loop, called the long loop region, is structurally and evolutionarily flexible, and is involved in Ca2+-dependent carbohydrate binding and interaction with other ligands. This loop is completely absent in a subset of CTLDs, which we refer to as compact CTLDs; these include the Link/PTR domain and bacterial CTLDs. CTLD-containing proteins (CTLDcps) were originally classified into seven groups based on their overall domain structure. Analyses of the superfamily representation in several completely sequenced genomes have added 10 new groups to the classification, and shown that it is applicable only to vertebrate CTLDcps; despite the abundance of CTLDcps in the invertebrate genomes studied, the domain architectures of these proteins do not match those of the vertebrate groups. Ca2+-dependent carbohydrate binding is the most common CTLD function in vertebrates, and apparently the ancestral one, as suggested by the many humoral defense CTLDcps characterized in insects and other invertebrates. However, many CTLDs have evolved to specifically recognize protein, lipid and inorganic ligands, including the vertebrate clade-specific snake venoms, and fish antifreeze and bird egg-shell proteins. Recent studies highlight the functional versatility of this protein superfamily and the CTLD scaffold, and suggest further interesting discoveries have yet to be made.
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            Sequencing of Culex quinquefasciatus establishes a platform for mosquito comparative genomics.

            Culex quinquefasciatus (the southern house mosquito) is an important mosquito vector of viruses such as West Nile virus and St. Louis encephalitis virus, as well as of nematodes that cause lymphatic filariasis. C. quinquefasciatus is one species within the Culex pipiens species complex and can be found throughout tropical and temperate climates of the world. The ability of C. quinquefasciatus to take blood meals from birds, livestock, and humans contributes to its ability to vector pathogens between species. Here, we describe the genomic sequence of C. quinquefasciatus: Its repertoire of 18,883 protein-coding genes is 22% larger than that of Aedes aegypti and 52% larger than that of Anopheles gambiae with multiple gene-family expansions, including olfactory and gustatory receptors, salivary gland genes, and genes associated with xenobiotic detoxification.
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              Global analysis of dauer gene expression in Caenorhabditis elegans.

              The dauer is a developmental stage in C. elegans that exhibits increased longevity, stress resistance, nictation and altered metabolism compared with normal worms. We have used DNA microarrays to profile gene expression differences during the transition from the dauer state to the non-dauer state and after feeding of starved L1 animals, and have identified 1984 genes that show significant expression changes. This analysis includes genes that encode transcription factors and components of signaling pathways that could regulate the entry to and exit from the dauer state, and genes that encode components of metabolic pathways important for dauer survival and longevity. Homologs of C. elegans dauer-enriched genes may be involved in the disease process in parasitic nematodes.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                29 April 2016
                2016
                : 11
                : 4
                : e0154892
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biology, Baylor University, Waco, TX, 76798, United States of America
                [2 ]Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology and Department of Entomology, Ohio State University, 318 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH, 43210, United States of America
                Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: CS DK. Performed the experiments: CS MC DK. Analyzed the data: MC DK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: CS. Wrote the paper: CS DD DK.

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5200-1214
                Article
                PONE-D-16-04131
                10.1371/journal.pone.0154892
                4851316
                27128578
                8411337e-15e1-4e5a-a9ad-46844e7d4c5d
                © 2016 Kang et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 29 January 2016
                : 20 April 2016
                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 3, Pages: 14
                Funding
                Baylor University, PI Startup funding
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Developmental Biology
                Diapause
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Physiology
                Physiological Processes
                Diapause
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Physiology
                Physiological Processes
                Diapause
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Epidemiology
                Disease Vectors
                Insect Vectors
                Mosquitoes
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Arthropoda
                Insects
                Mosquitoes
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Computational Biology
                Genome Analysis
                Gene Ontologies
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Genetics
                Genomics
                Genome Analysis
                Gene Ontologies
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Biochemistry
                Hormones
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Arthropoda
                Insects
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Genetics
                Gene Expression
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Immunology
                Immune System
                Innate Immune System
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Immunology
                Immune System
                Innate Immune System
                Physical Sciences
                Chemistry
                Chemical Compounds
                Organic Compounds
                Alcohols
                Physical Sciences
                Chemistry
                Organic Chemistry
                Organic Compounds
                Alcohols
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the paper.

                Uncategorized
                Uncategorized

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