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      Using Wearable Devices to Profile Demographic-Specific Recovery After Pediatric Appendectomy

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          Updated Guidance on the Reporting of Race and Ethnicity in Medical and Science Journals

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            Is Open Access

            Systematic review of the validity and reliability of consumer-wearable activity trackers

            Background Consumer-wearable activity trackers are electronic devices used for monitoring fitness- and other health-related metrics. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence for validity and reliability of popular consumer-wearable activity trackers (Fitbit and Jawbone) and their ability to estimate steps, distance, physical activity, energy expenditure, and sleep. Methods Searches included only full-length English language studies published in PubMed, Embase, SPORTDiscus, and Google Scholar through July 31, 2015. Two people reviewed and abstracted each included study. Results In total, 22 studies were included in the review (20 on adults, 2 on youth). For laboratory-based studies using step counting or accelerometer steps, the correlation with tracker-assessed steps was high for both Fitbit and Jawbone (Pearson or intraclass correlation coefficients (CC) > =0.80). Only one study assessed distance for the Fitbit, finding an over-estimate at slower speeds and under-estimate at faster speeds. Two field-based studies compared accelerometry-assessed physical activity to the trackers, with one study finding higher correlation (Spearman CC 0.86, Fitbit) while another study found a wide range in correlation (intraclass CC 0.36–0.70, Fitbit and Jawbone). Using several different comparison measures (indirect and direct calorimetry, accelerometry, self-report), energy expenditure was more often under-estimated by either tracker. Total sleep time and sleep efficiency were over-estimated and wake after sleep onset was under-estimated comparing metrics from polysomnography to either tracker using a normal mode setting. No studies of intradevice reliability were found. Interdevice reliability was reported on seven studies using the Fitbit, but none for the Jawbone. Walking- and running-based Fitbit trials indicated consistently high interdevice reliability for steps (Pearson and intraclass CC 0.76–1.00), distance (intraclass CC 0.90–0.99), and energy expenditure (Pearson and intraclass CC 0.71–0.97). When wearing two Fitbits while sleeping, consistency between the devices was high. Conclusion This systematic review indicated higher validity of steps, few studies on distance and physical activity, and lower validity for energy expenditure and sleep. The evidence reviewed indicated high interdevice reliability for steps, distance, energy expenditure, and sleep for certain Fitbit models. As new activity trackers and features are introduced to the market, documentation of the measurement properties can guide their use in research settings. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12966-015-0314-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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              Effect of exercise training on chronic inflammation.

              Persistent, sub-clinical inflammation, as indicated by higher circulating levels of inflammatory mediators, is a prominent risk factor for several chronic diseases, as well as aging-related disability. As such, the inflammatory pathway is a potential therapeutic target for lifestyle interventions designed to reduce disease and disability. Physical exercise is well recognized as an important strategy for reducing the risk of chronic disease, and recent research has focused on its role in the improvement of the inflammatory profile. This review summarizes the evidence for and against the role of increasing physical activity in the reduction of chronic inflammation. Large population-based cohort studies consistently show an inverse association between markers of systemic inflammation and physical activity or fitness status, and data from several small-scale intervention studies support that exercise training diminishes inflammation. However, data from large, randomized, controlled trials designed to definitively test the effects of exercise training on inflammation are limited, and results are inconclusive. Future studies are needed to refine our understanding of the effects of exercise training on systemic low-grade inflammation, the magnitude of such an effect, and the amount of exercise necessary to elicit clinically meaningful changes in the deleterious association between inflammation and disease. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                Journal of Surgical Research
                Journal of Surgical Research
                Elsevier BV
                00224804
                March 2024
                March 2024
                : 295
                : 131-138
                Article
                10.1016/j.jss.2023.10.020
                8417b2d8-b3e0-4b7d-9b2c-d57b520e5e10
                © 2024

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