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      Microscale ecology regulates particulate organic matter turnover in model marine microbial communities

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          Abstract

          The degradation of particulate organic matter in the ocean is a central process in the global carbon cycle, the mode and tempo of which is determined by the bacterial communities that assemble on particle surfaces. Here, we find that the capacity of communities to degrade particles is highly dependent on community composition using a collection of marine bacteria cultured from different stages of succession on chitin microparticles. Different particle degrading taxa display characteristic particle half-lives that differ by ~170 h, comparable to the residence time of particles in the ocean’s mixed layer. Particle half-lives are in general longer in multispecies communities, where the growth of obligate cross-feeders hinders the ability of degraders to colonize and consume particles in a dose dependent manner. Our results suggest that the microscale community ecology of bacteria on particle surfaces can impact the rates of carbon turnover in the ocean.

          Abstract

          Particle-attached bacteria play a key ecosystem role by degrading complex organic materials in the ocean. Here, the authors use model marine microbial communities to show that community composition and interspecies interactions can significantly slowdown the rates of particle turnover in the environment.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Quantifying the evidence for biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning and services.

          Concern is growing about the consequences of biodiversity loss for ecosystem functioning, for the provision of ecosystem services, and for human well being. Experimental evidence for a relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem process rates is compelling, but the issue remains contentious. Here, we present the first rigorous quantitative assessment of this relationship through meta-analysis of experimental work spanning 50 years to June 2004. We analysed 446 measures of biodiversity effects (252 in grasslands), 319 of which involved primary producer manipulations or measurements. Our analyses show that: biodiversity effects are weaker if biodiversity manipulations are less well controlled; effects of biodiversity change on processes are weaker at the ecosystem compared with the community level and are negative at the population level; productivity-related effects decline with increasing number of trophic links between those elements manipulated and those measured; biodiversity effects on stability measures ('insurance' effects) are not stronger than biodiversity effects on performance measures. For those ecosystem services which could be assessed here, there is clear evidence that biodiversity has positive effects on most. Whilst such patterns should be further confirmed, a precautionary approach to biodiversity management would seem prudent in the meantime.
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            Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in aquatic environments

             U Passow (2002)
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              Polysaccharide aggregation as a potential sink of marine dissolved organic carbon.

              The formation and sinking of biogenic particles mediate vertical mass fluxes and drive elemental cycling in the ocean. Whereas marine sciences have focused primarily on particle production by phytoplankton growth, particle formation by the assembly of organic macromolecules has almost been neglected. Here we show, by means of a combined experimental and modelling study, that the formation of polysaccharide particles is an important pathway to convert dissolved into particulate organic carbon during phytoplankton blooms, and can be described in terms of aggregation kinetics. Our findings suggest that aggregation processes in the ocean cascade from the molecular scale up to the size of fast-settling particles, and give new insights into the cycling and export of biogeochemical key elements such as carbon, iron and thorium.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                ottox@mit.edu
                Journal
                Nat Commun
                Nat Commun
                Nature Communications
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2041-1723
                16 July 2018
                16 July 2018
                2018
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2341 2786, GRID grid.116068.8, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, , Massachusetts Institute of Technology, ; Cambridge, MA 02139 USA
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2156 2780, GRID grid.5801.c, Department of Environmental Systems Science, , ETH Zurich, ; Zürich, 8092 Switzerland
                Article
                5159
                10.1038/s41467-018-05159-8
                6048024
                30013041
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100000854, Human Frontier Science Program (HFSP);
                Award ID: LT000643/2016-L
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100001711, Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung (Swiss National Science Foundation);
                Award ID: 162251
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100000141, NSF | GEO | Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE);
                Award ID: OCE-1658451
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100000893, Simons Foundation;
                Award ID: 410104
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100000781, EC | European Research Council (ERC);
                Award ID: 336938
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100000879, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation;
                Award ID: FG-20166236
                Award Recipient :
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