24 June 2019
We investigated whether or to what extent the interaction of lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] with cholesterol-containing lipids was associated with angiographic coronary collateralization in type 2 diabetic patients with chronic total occlusion.
Serum levels of Lp(a), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein–cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein–cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride were determined and non-HDL-C was calculated in 706 type 2 diabetic and 578 non-diabetic patients with stable coronary artery disease and angiographic total occlusion of at least one major coronary artery. The degree of collaterals supplying the distal aspect of a total occlusion from the contra-lateral vessel was graded as poor (Rentrop score of 0 or 1) or good coronary collateralization (Rentrop score of 2 or 3).
For diabetic and non-diabetic patients, Lp(a), total cholesterol, LDL-C, and non-HDL-C levels were higher in patients with poor coronary collateralization than in those with good collateralization, whereas HDL-C and triglyceride levels were similar. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, tertiles of Lp(a), total cholesterol, LDL-C and non-HDL-C remained independent determinants for poor collateralization. A significant interaction between Lp(a) and total cholesterol, LDL-C or non-HDL-C was observed in diabetic patients (all P interaction < 0.001) but not in non-diabetics. At high tertile of total cholesterol (≥ 5.35 mmol/L), LDL-C (≥ 3.36 mmol/L) and non-HDL-C (≥ 4.38 mmol/L), diabetic patients with high tertile of Lp(a) (≥ 30.23 mg/dL) had an increased risk of poor collateralization compared with those with low tertile of Lp(a) (< 12.66 mg/dL) (adjusted OR = 4.300, 3.970 and 4.386, respectively, all P < 0.001).
Increased Lp(a) confers greater risk for poor coronary collateralization when total cholesterol, LDL-C or non-HDL-C are elevated especially for patients with type 2 diabetes.