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      Dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

      Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism

      Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, complications, drug therapy, Dyslipidemias, epidemiology, etiology, physiopathology, Humans, Insulin Resistance, physiology, Models, Biological

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          Abstract

          Dyslipidemia is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease in diabetes mellitus. The characteristic features of diabetic dyslipidemia are a high plasma triglyceride concentration, low HDL cholesterol concentration and increased concentration of small dense LDL-cholesterol particles. The lipid changes associated with diabetes mellitus are attributed to increased free fatty acid flux secondary to insulin resistance. The availability of multiple lipid-lowering drugs and supplements provides new opportunities for patients to achieve target lipid levels. However, the variety of therapeutic options poses a challenge in the prioritization of drug therapy. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia is not increased in patients with diabetes mellitus, but mortality from coronary heart disease increases exponentially as a function of serum cholesterol levels, and lowering of cholesterol with statins reduces diabetic patients' relative cardiovascular risk. Although drug therapy for dyslipidemia must be individualized, most people with diabetes mellitus are candidates for statin therapy, and often need treatment with multiple agents to achieve therapeutic goals.

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          Most cited references 53

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          Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association.

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            Simvastatin with or without ezetimibe in familial hypercholesterolemia.

            Ezetimibe, a cholesterol-absorption inhibitor, reduces levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol when added to statin treatment. However, the effect of ezetimibe on the progression of atherosclerosis remains unknown. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, 24-month trial comparing the effects of daily therapy with 80 mg of simvastatin either with placebo or with 10 mg of ezetimibe in 720 patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. Patients underwent B-mode ultrasonography to assess the intima-media thickness of the walls of the carotid and femoral arteries. The primary outcome measure was the change in the mean carotid-artery intima-media thickness, which was defined as the average of the means of the far-wall intima-media thickness of the right and left common carotid arteries, carotid bulbs, and internal carotid arteries. The primary outcome, the mean (+/-SE) change in the carotid-artery intima-media thickness, was 0.0058+/-0.0037 mm in the simvastatin-only group and 0.0111+/-0.0038 mm in the simvastatin-plus-ezetimibe (combined-therapy) group (P=0.29). Secondary outcomes (consisting of other variables regarding the intima-media thickness of the carotid and femoral arteries) did not differ significantly between the two groups. At the end of the study, the mean (+/-SD) LDL cholesterol level was 192.7+/-60.3 mg per deciliter (4.98+/-1.56 mmol per liter) in the simvastatin group and 141.3+/-52.6 mg per deciliter (3.65+/-1.36 mmol per liter) in the combined-therapy group (a between-group difference of 16.5%, P<0.01). The differences between the two groups in reductions in levels of triglycerides and C-reactive protein were 6.6% and 25.7%, respectively, with greater reductions in the combined-therapy group (P<0.01 for both comparisons). Side-effect and safety profiles were similar in the two groups. In patients with familial hypercholesterolemia, combined therapy with ezetimibe and simvastatin did not result in a significant difference in changes in intima-media thickness, as compared with simvastatin alone, despite decreases in levels of LDL cholesterol and C-reactive protein. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00552097 [ClinicalTrials.gov].). Copyright 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Lipoprotein management in patients with cardiometabolic risk: consensus statement from the American Diabetes Association and the American College of Cardiology Foundation.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                19229235
                10.1038/ncpendmet1066

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