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      Pharmacokinetic interactions between telmisartan/amlodipine and rosuvastatin after multiple oral administrations in healthy Korean male subjects

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          Hypertension and dyslipidemia are major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and reduction of cardiovascular risks can be achieved by combining antihypertensive therapy with statins. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic interaction between telmisartan/amlodipine fixed dose combination and rosuvastatin in healthy Korean male volunteers.

          Patients and methods

          An open-label, two-cohort, multiple-dose, single-sequence crossover study was conducted in healthy male subjects. In Cohort 1, the subjects were administered one tablet of telmisartan/amlodipine 80 mg/5 mg once daily for 14 days with or without one tablet of rosuvastatin 20 mg once daily. In Cohort 2, the subjects were administered one tablet of rosuvastatin 20 mg once daily for 14 days with or without one tablet of telmisartan/amlodipine 80 mg/5 mg once daily. Serial blood samples were collected up to 24 hrs post-dose on the 9th and 14th days in Cohort 1 and on the 5th and 14th days in Cohort 2. Plasma drug concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including maximum plasma concentration at steady state (C max,ss) and area under the plasma concentration versus time curve over dosing interval (AUC τ,ss), were determined by non-compartmental analysis. The geometric least-square mean (GLSM) ratios and associated 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of log-transformed C max,ss and AUC τ,ss for separate or concurrent therapy were calculated to evaluate pharmacokinetic interactions.


          Thirty-eight subjects from Cohort 1 and nineteen subjects from Cohort 2 completed the study. The GLSM ratios and 90% CIs of C max,ss and AUC τ,ss, were 0.9829 (0.8334–1.1590) and 1.0003 (0.9342–1.0710) for telmisartan; 0.9908 (0.9602–1.0223) and 1.0081 (0.9758–1.0413) for amlodipine; and 2.2762 (2.0113–2.5758) and 1.3261 (1.2385–1.4198) for rosuvastatin, respectively.


          The pharmacokinetic parameters of telmisartan/amlodipine, but not rosuvastatin, met the pharmacokinetic equivalent criteria. The increase in systemic exposure to rosuvastatin caused by telmisartan/amlodipine co-administration would not be clinically significant in practice. Nevertheless, an appropriately designed two-sequence crossover study is needed to confirm the results of this study.

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          Most cited references 18

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          2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol

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            Treatment with drugs to lower blood pressure and blood cholesterol based on an individual's absolute cardiovascular risk.

            In this review, we outline the rationale for targeting blood pressure and blood cholesterol lowering drug treatments to patients at high absolute cardiovascular risk, irrespective of their blood pressure or blood cholesterol levels. Because the specific levels of blood pressure and cholesterol are of little clinical relevance when considered in isolation from other risk factors, terms such as hypertension or hypercholesterolaemia have limited value. Separate management guidelines for raised blood pressure and blood cholesterol need to be replaced by integrated cardiovascular risk management guidelines, and absolute cardiovascular risk prediction scores should be used routinely. Since cardiovascular risk factors interact with each other, moderate reductions in several risk factors can be more effective than major reductions in one. An affordable daily pill combining low doses of various drugs could be useful for the many individuals with slightly abnormal cardiovascular risk factors.
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              Drug and bile acid transporters in rosuvastatin hepatic uptake: function, expression, and pharmacogenetics.

              The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, or statins, target liver HMG-CoA and are of proven benefit in the prevention of coronary heart disease. Rosuvastatin is an effective statin notable for liver selectivity and lack of significant metabolism. We assessed the extent and relevance of hepatic transporters to rosuvastatin uptake. Transporters involved in rosuvastatin uptake were determined through heterologous expression of multiple human and rat uptake transporters. Human organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 and sodium-dependent taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) allelic variants were also assessed. Expression of OATP and NTCP messenger RNA and protein was determined from a bank of human liver samples. Multiple OATP family members, including 1B1, 1B3, 2B1, and 1A2, were capable of rosuvastatin transport. Naturally occurring polymorphisms in OATP1B1, including *5, *9, *15, and *18, were associated with profound loss of activity toward rosuvastatin. Interestingly, the major human hepatic bile acid uptake transporter NTCP, but not rat Ntcp, also transported rosuvastatin. Human hepatocyte studies suggested that NTCP alone accounted for approximately 35% of rosuvastatin uptake. Remarkably, NTCP*2, a variant known to have a near complete loss of function for bile acids, exhibited a profound gain of function for rosuvastatin. Quantitative messenger RNA analysis revealed marked intersubject variability in expression of OATPs and NTCP. Multiple transporters mediate the overall hepatic uptake of rosuvastatin, and NTCP may be a heretofore unrecognized transporter important to the disposition of rosuvastatin and possibly other drugs/statins in clinical use. Accordingly, transporter expression and polymorphisms may be key determinants of intersubject variability in response to statin therapy in general.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                25 July 2019
                : 13
                : 2533-2542
                [1 ] Center for Clinical Pharmacology, Biomedical Research Institute, Chonbuk National University Hospital , Jeonju, Republic of Korea
                [2 ] Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [3 ] Yuhan Research Institute, Yuhan Corporation , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [4 ] Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University , Jeonju, Republic of Korea
                [5 ] Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Chonbuk National University , Jeonju, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Min-Gul KimDepartment of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Chonbuk National University , 20 Geonji-ro, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 54907, Republic of KoreaTel +82 63 259 3480 Email mgkim@ 123456jbnu.ac.kr
                © 2019 Moon et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, References: 28, Pages: 10
                Original Research


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