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      Regulation of inflammatory responses by IL-17F

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          Abstract

          Although interleukin (IL) 17 has been extensively characterized, the function of IL-17F, which has an expression pattern regulated similarly to IL-17, is poorly understood. We show that like IL-17, IL-17F regulates proinflammatory gene expression in vitro, and this requires IL-17 receptor A, tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated factor 6, and Act1. In vivo, overexpression of IL-17F in lung epithelium led to infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages and mucus hyperplasia, similar to observations made in IL-17 transgenic mice. To further understand the function of IL-17F, we generated and analyzed mice deficient in IL-17F or IL-17. IL-17, but not IL-17F, was required for the initiation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Mice deficient in IL-17F, but not IL-17, had defective airway neutrophilia in response to allergen challenge. Moreover, in an asthma model, although IL-17 deficiency reduced T helper type 2 responses, IL-17F–deficient mice displayed enhanced type 2 cytokine production and eosinophil function. In addition, IL-17F deficiency resulted in reduced colitis caused by dextran sulfate sodium, whereas IL-17 knockout mice developed more severe disease. Our results thus demonstrate that IL-17F is an important regulator of inflammatory responses that seems to function differently than IL-17 in immune responses and diseases.

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          Most cited references 36

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          A distinct lineage of CD4 T cells regulates tissue inflammation by producing interleukin 17.

          Interleukin 17 (IL-17) has been linked to autoimmune diseases, although its regulation and function have remained unclear. Here we have evaluated in vitro and in vivo the requirements for the differentiation of naive CD4 T cells into effector T helper cells that produce IL-17. This process required the costimulatory molecules CD28 and ICOS but was independent of the cytokines and transcription factors required for T helper type 1 or type 2 differentiation. Furthermore, both IL-4 and interferon-gamma negatively regulated T helper cell production of IL-17 in the effector phase. In vivo, antibody to IL-17 inhibited chemokine expression in the brain during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas overexpression of IL-17 in lung epithelium caused chemokine production and leukocyte infiltration. Thus, IL-17 expression characterizes a unique T helper lineage that regulates tissue inflammation.
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            T helper 17 lineage differentiation is programmed by orphan nuclear receptors ROR alpha and ROR gamma.

            T cell functional differentiation is mediated by lineage-specific transcription factors. T helper 17 (Th17) has been recently identified as a distinct Th lineage mediating tissue inflammation. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor gamma (ROR gamma) was shown to regulate Th17 differentiation; ROR gamma deficiency, however, did not completely abolish Th17 cytokine expression. Here, we report Th17 cells highly expressed another related nuclear receptor, ROR alpha, induced by transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which is dependent on signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. Overexpression of ROR alpha promoted Th17 differentiation, possibly through the conserved noncoding sequence 2 in Il17-Il17f locus. ROR alpha deficiency resulted in reduced IL-17 expression in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, ROR alpha and ROR gamma coexpression synergistically led to greater Th17 differentiation. Double deficiencies in ROR alpha and ROR gamma globally impaired Th17 generation and completely protected mice against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Therefore, Th17 differentiation is directed by two lineage-specific nuclear receptors, ROR alpha and ROR gamma.
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              STAT3 regulates cytokine-mediated generation of inflammatory helper T cells.

              Interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing helper T (TH) cells, named as TH(IL-17), TH17, or inflammatory TH (THi), have been recently identified as a novel effector lineage. However, how cytokine signals mediate THi differentiation is unclear. We found that IL-6 functioned to up-regulate IL-23R and that IL-23 synergized with IL-6 in promoting THi generation. STAT3, activated by both IL-6 and IL-23, plays a critical role in THi development. A hyperactive form of STAT3 promoted THi development, whereas this differentiation process was greatly impaired in STAT3-deficient T cells. Moreover, STAT3 regulated the expression of retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor gamma-T (RORgamma t), a THi-specific transcriptional regulator; STAT3 deficiency impaired RORgamma t expression and led to elevated expression of T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet) and Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3). Our data thus demonstrate a pathway whereby cytokines regulate THi differentiation through a selective STAT transcription factor that functions to regulate lineage-specific gene expression.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Exp Med
                jem
                The Journal of Experimental Medicine
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0022-1007
                1540-9538
                12 May 2008
                : 205
                : 5
                : 1063-1075
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Immunology and [2 ]Department of Pathology, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030
                [3 ]Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195
                [4 ]Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21224
                Author notes

                CORRESPONDENCE Chen Dong: cdong@ 123456mdanderson.org

                Article
                20071978
                10.1084/jem.20071978
                2373839
                18411338
                © 2008 Yang et al.

                This article is distributed under the terms of an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike–No Mirror Sites license for the first six months after the publication date (see http://www.jem.org/misc/terms.shtml). After six months it is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license, as described at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).

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