Implementing antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs is central to optimise antimicrobial use in primary care. This study aims to assess general practitioners’ (GPs’) awareness of AMS, uptake of AMS strategies, attitudes towards GP–pharmacist collaboration in AMS and future AMS improvement strategies. A paper-based survey of nationally representative GPs across Australia was conducted in 2019. Of 386 respondent GPs, 68.9% were familiar with AMS. Respondents most frequently used the Therapeutic Guidelines (TG) (83.2%, 321/385) and delayed antimicrobial prescribing (72.2%, 278/385) strategies, whereas few utilised point-of-care tests (18.4%, 71/382), patient information leaflets (20.2%, 78/384), peer prescribing reports (15.5%, 60/384) and audit and feedback (9.8%, 38/384). GPs were receptive to pharmacists’ recommendations on the choice (50.5%, 192/381) and dose (63%, 241/382) of antimicrobials, and more than 60% (235/381) supported a policy fostering increased GP–pharmacist collaboration. Most GPs agreed to have AMS training (72%, 278/386), integration of electronic TG (eTG) with prescribing software (88.3%, 341/386) and policies limiting the prescribing of selected antimicrobials (74.4%, 287/386) in the future. Conclusively, GPs are aware of the importance of judicious antimicrobial prescribing but inadequately uptake evidence-based AMS strategies. The majority of GPs support GP–pharmacist collaborative AMS approaches to optimise antimicrobial use. Developing a feasible GP–pharmacist collaborative AMS implementation model and facilitating stewardship resources and training could foster AMS activities in primary care.