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      Age-Related Association of Calcitonin with Parameters of Anthropometry, Bone and Calcium Metabolism during Childhood

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          Introduction: The thyroid parafollicular hormone calcitonin (CT) shows particularly high blood levels in early childhood, a period of high bone turnover, which decrease with increasing age. Data about the physiological role of CT during infancy, childhood, and adolescence are contradictory or lacking. Objective: We hypothesize that CT demonstrates age-related correlations with parameters of bone growth and turnover as well as with parameters of calcium homeostasis. Methods: 5,410 measurements of anthropometric data and venous blood samples were collected from 2,636 participants of the LIFE Child study, aged 2 months–18 years. Univariate correlations and multiple regression analysis were performed between serum CT and anthropometric indicators (height standard deviation scores [SDS] and BMI-SDS), markers of calcium (Ca) homeostasis (Ca, parathyroid hormone, 25-OH vitamin D, and phosphate [P]), bone formation (procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide [P1NP], osteocalcin), and bone resorption (β-CrossLaps). Results: CT was significantly associated with Ca (β = 0.26, p < 0.05) and P1NP/100 (β = 0.005, p < 0.05) in children aged 2 months–1.1 years. These relations were independent of age and sex and could not be confirmed in children aged 1.1–8 years. Independent of age, sex, puberty, P, and height SDS CT showed a significant positive relation to Ca (β = 0.26; p < 0.001) in children aged 8–18 years. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a unique association between CT and Ca in periods of rapid bone growth and point to a possible involvement of CT in promoting bone formation during the first year of life.

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          Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4.

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            Histopathology of C Cells and Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.

            The human thyroid gland contains less than 0.01-0.1% calcitonin producing and secreting C cells, which in men are almost exclusively situated in an intrafollicular location; the vast majority of C cells are embryologically derived of remnants of the ultimobranchial body and ultimately of the neural crest, a small subset, however, is presumed to originate from endodermal stem cells. Thyroid tumours with C cell differentiation have been named medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC); calcitonin is also produced and secreted by MTC which makes this peptide hormone a very useful serum marker both for early detection and clinical follow-up of patients with MTC. About 70-80% of MTC are sporadic tumours, whereas 20-30% are familial MTC which are autosomal-dominant inherited and caused by germline mutations of the RET proto-oncogene located on chromosome 10. This article summarizes the histological, immunhistochemical and molecular genetic features of C cells, C-cell hyperplasia (CCH) and MTC, emphasizing the role of diagnostic pathology.
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                Author and article information

                Horm Res Paediatr
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                February 2021
                11 December 2020
                : 93
                : 6
                : 361-370
                aLIFE Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
                bInstitute for Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics (ILM), University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
                cHospital for Children and Adolescents, Center of Pediatric Research, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
                dEndocrine Practice, Heidelberg, Germany
                Author notes
                *Jürgen Kratzsch, Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, University Hospital of Leipzig, Paul-List-Str. 13/15, DE–04103 Leipzig (Germany), Juergen.Kratzsch@medizin.uni-leipzig.de
                512107 Horm Res Paediatr 2020;93:361–370
                © 2020 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, Pages: 10
                Research Article


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