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      Involvement of prolactin in the meloxicam-dependent inflammatory response of the gonadotropic axis to prolonged lipopolysaccharide treatment in anoestrous ewes

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          Selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 reverses inflammation and expression of COX-2 and interleukin 6 in rat adjuvant arthritis.

          Prostaglandins formed by the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes are important mediators of inflammation in arthritis. The contribution of the inducible COX-2 enzyme to inflammation in rat adjuvant arthritis was evaluated by characterization of COX-2 expression in normal and arthritic paws and by pharmacological inhibition of COX-2 activity. The injection of adjuvant induced a marked edema of the hind footpads with coincident local production of PGE2. PG production was associated with upregulation of COX-2 mRNA and protein in the affected paws. In contrast, the level of COX-1 mRNA was unaffected by adjuvant injection. TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNAs were also increased in the inflamed paws as was IL-6 protein in the serum. Therapeutic administration of a selective COX-2 inhibitor, SC-58125, rapidly reversed paw edema and reduced the level of PGE2 in paw tissue to baseline. Interestingly, treatment with the COX-2 inhibitor also reduced the expression of COX-2 mRNA and protein in the paw. Serum IL-6 and paw IL-6 mRNA levels were also reduced to near normal levels by SC-58125. Furthermore, inhibition of COX-2 resulted in a reduction of the inflammatory cell infiltrate and decreased inflammation of the synovium. Notably, the antiinflammatory effects of SC-58125 were indistinguishable from the effects observed for indomethacin. These results suggest that COX-2 plays a prominent role in the inflammation associated with adjuvant arthritis and that COX-2 derived PGs upregulate COX-2 and IL-6 expression at inflammatory sites.
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            The relationship between uterine pathogen growth density and ovarian function in the postpartum dairy cow.

            In cattle, the first postpartum dominant follicle grows slower and produces less oestradiol in animals with high numbers of bacteria contaminating the uterine lumen. However, only bacteria that are uterine pathogens are correlated with severe clinical disease and an increased inflammatory response. It is unknown whether the effect on the ovary in relation to uterine bacterial contamination is associated with the presence of recognised uterine pathogens. Therefore, the present study examined the relationship between pathogenic bacteria in the postpartum uterine lumen, follicle growth and function and the formation of a competent corpus luteum. In addition, peripheral plasma concentrations of immune mediators were quantified. Swabs were collected from the uterine lumen of cattle on day 7 postpartum. Bacteria were cultured and identified and bacterial growth was scored semi-quantitatively. Animals were categorized into high or low recognized uterine pathogen contamination groups based on the number of colonies. Ovarian structures were monitored by daily transrectal ultrasonography and blood samples were collected. In animals with high numbers of uterine pathogens on day 7 postpartum, the diameter of the first postpartum dominant follicle was smaller and plasma oestradiol concentrations were lower. In addition, these animals had smaller corpora lutea, which produced less progesterone. Furthermore, animals with a high day 7 uterine pathogen growth density had higher peripheral concentrations of acute phase proteins. Thus, contamination of the uterus with recognized uterine pathogens is associated with ovarian dysfunction during the postpartum period. Furthermore, infection results in an increase in the production of inflammatory mediators.
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              “Inflammatory” Cytokines

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Reproduction, Fertility and Development
                Reprod. Fertil. Dev.
                CSIRO Publishing
                1031-3613
                2016
                2016
                : 28
                : 7
                : 914
                Article
                10.1071/RD13435
                © 2016
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