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      G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) mediates NSCLC progression induced by 17β-estradiol (E2) and selective agonist G1.

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          Abstract

          Estrogen classically drives lung cancer development via estrogen receptor β (ERβ). However, fulvestrant, an anti-estrogen-based endocrine therapeutic treatment, shows limited effects for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in phase II clinical trials. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), a third estrogen receptor that binds to estrogen, has been found to be activated by fulvestrant, stimulating the progression of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers. We here demonstrated that cytoplasm-GPER (cGPER) (80.49 %) and nucleus-GPER (53.05 %) were detected by immunohistochemical analysis in NSCLC samples. cGPER expression was related to stages IIIA-IV, lymph node metastasis, and poorly differentiated NSCLC. Selective agonist G1 and 17β-estradiol (E2) promoted the GPER-mediated proliferation, invasion, and migration of NSCLC cells. Additionally, in vitro administration of E2 and G1 increased the number of tumor nodules, tumor grade, and tumor index in a urethane-induced adenocarcinoma model. Importantly, the pro-tumorigenic effects of GPER induced by E2 were significantly reduced by co-administering the GPER inhibitor G15 and the ERβ inhibitor fulvestrant, as compared to administering fulvestrant alone both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the phosphorylation of MAPK and Akt was involved in E2/G1-induced GPER activation. In conclusion, our results indicated that a pro-tumor function of GPER exists that mediated E2-/G1-dependent NSCLC progression and showed better efficiency regarding the co-targeting of GPER and ERβ, providing a rationale for further investigation of anti-estrogen clinical therapy.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Med. Oncol.
          Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
          Springer Nature
          1559-131X
          1357-0560
          Apr 2015
          : 32
          : 4
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Jiefang Dadao Street 1095, Wuhan, 430030, Hubei Province, China.
          Article
          10.1007/s12032-015-0558-2
          25744245
          845be38d-c3d8-4751-a110-f7e7dfcc41e0
          History

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