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      Effects of lactation and pregnancy on gene expression of endometrium of Holstein cows at day 17 of the estrous cycle or pregnancy


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          Objectives were to determine effects of lactation and pregnancy on endometrial gene expression on d 17 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Heifers (n = 33) were assigned randomly after parturition to lactating (L, n = 17) or nonlactating (NL, n = 16) groups. Cows were subjected to an ovulation synchronization program for a timed artificial insemination (TAI); 10 cows in L and 12 in NL were inseminated. Slaughter occurred 17 d after the day equivalent to TAI, and intercaruncular endometrial tissues were collected. Gene expression was determined by DNA microarray analysis for pregnant (L, n = 8; NL, n = 6) and noninseminated cyclic (L, n = 7; NL, n = 4) cows. Differentially expressed genes were selected with a P-value <0.01 and absolute expression >40. In addition, a fold effect >1.5 was used as a criterion for genes affected by pregnancy. In total, 210 genes were differentially regulated by lactation (136 downregulated and 74 upregulated), and 702 genes were differentially regulated by pregnancy (407 downregulated and 295 upregulated). The interaction effect of pregnancy and lactation affected 61 genes. Genes up- and downregulated in pregnant cows were associated with several gene ontology terms, such as defense response and interferon regulatory factor, cell adhesion, and extracellular matrix. The gene ontology analyses of up- and downregulated genes of lactating cows revealed terms related to immunoglobulin-like fold, immune response, COMM domain, and non-membrane-bounded organelle. Several genes upregulated by lactation, such as IGHG1, IGLL1, IGK, and TRD, were related to immune function, particularly for B cells and γδ T cells. Developmental genes related to limb and neural development and glucose homeostasis (e.g., DKK1, RELN, PDK4) were downregulated by lactation, whereas an interaction was also detected for RELN. The stated genes associated with immune function and developmental genes expressed in the endometrium affected by lactational state are possible candidate genes for interventions to improve fertility of lactating dairy cows.

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          Most cited references52

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          Reproductive loss in high-producing dairy cattle: where will it end?

          M Lucy (2001)
          The dairy industry in the United States has changed dramatically in the last decade. Milk production per cow has increased steadily because of a combination of improved management, better nutrition, and intense genetic selection. Dairy farms are larger, and nearly 30% of the dairy cows in the United States are on farms with 500 or more cows. The shift toward more productive cows and larger herds is associated with a decrease in reproductive efficiency. Cows with the greatest milk production have the highest incidence of infertility, but epidemiological studies suggest that, in addition to milk production, other factors are probably decreasing reproductive efficiency in our dairy herds. The reproductive physiology of dairy cows has changed over the past 50 yr, and physiological adaptations to high milk production may explain part of the reproductive decline. Critical areas for new research include control of the estrous cycle, metabolic effects of lactation on reproduction, mechanisms linking disease to reproduction, and early embryonic mortality. Solving reproductive loss in dairy cows will not be easy because only a small number of research groups study reproduction in postpartum dairy cows. Therefore, the present research base will need to be expanded. For this to occur, research funding must be increased above its current level and a renewed emphasis must be placed on solving the emerging crisis of infertility in dairy cows.
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            Recombinant human interferon-inducible protein 10 is a chemoattractant for human monocytes and T lymphocytes and promotes T cell adhesion to endothelial cells

            The human cytokine interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) is a small glycoprotein secreted by activated T cells, monocytes, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, and is structurally related to a family of chemotactic cytokines called chemokines. Although this protein is present in sites of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions and lepromatous leprosy lesions, the biological activity of IP-10 remains unknown. We report here that recombinant human IP-10 stimulated significant in vitro chemotaxis of human peripheral blood monocytes but not neutrophils. Recombinant human IP-10 also stimulated chemotaxis of stimulated, but not unstimulated, human peripheral blood T lymphocytes. Phenotypic analysis of the stimulated T cell population responsive to IP-10 demonstrated that stimulated CD4+ and CD29+ T cells migrated in response to IP-10. This resembles the biological activity of the previously described T cell chemoattractant RANTES. Using an endothelial cell adhesion assay, we demonstrated that stimulated T cells pretreated with optimal doses of IP-10 exhibited a greatly enhanced ability to bind to an interleukin 1-treated endothelial cell monolayer. These results demonstrate that the IP-10 gene encodes for an inflammatory mediator that specifically stimulates the directional migration of T cells and monocytes as well as potentiates T cell adhesion to endothelium.
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              Links between signal transduction, transcription and adhesion in epithelial bud development.

              The morphogenesis of organs as diverse as lungs, teeth and hair follicles is initiated by a downgrowth from a layer of epithelial stem cells. During follicular morphogenesis, stem cells form this bud structure by changing their polarity and cell-cell contacts. Here we show that this process is achieved through simultaneous receipt of two external signals: a Wnt protein to stabilize beta-catenin, and a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitor to produce Lef1. Beta-catenin then binds to, and activates, Lef1 transcription complexes that appear to act uncharacteristically by downregulating the gene encoding E-cadherin, an important component of polarity and intercellular adhesion. When either signal is missing, functional Lef1 complexes are not made, and E-cadherin downregulation and follicle morphogenesis are impaired. In Drosophila, E-cadherin can influence the plane of cell division and cytoskeletal dynamics. Consistent with this notion, we show that forced elevation of E-cadherin levels block invagination and follicle production. Our findings reveal an intricate molecular programme that links two extracellular signalling pathways to the formation of a nuclear transcription factor that acts on target genes to remodel cellular junctions and permit follicle formation.

                Author and article information

                J Dairy Sci
                J. Dairy Sci
                Journal of Dairy Science
                American Dairy Science Association
                9 August 2012
                October 2012
                9 August 2012
                : 95
                : 10
                : 5657-5675
                [* ]Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611
                []Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4
                []Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361–763, Korea
                [§ ]The Interdisciplinary Center for Biotechnology Research, University of Florida, Gainesville 32610
                Author notes
                [1 ]Corresponding author. thatcher@ 123456ufl.edu
                Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                : 1 November 2011
                : 29 May 2012

                endometrium,gene expression,lactation,pregnancy
                endometrium, gene expression, lactation, pregnancy


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