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      Neuropathic Pain Causes Memory Deficits and Dendrite Tree Morphology Changes in Mouse Hippocampus

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          Neuropathic pain manifests in a diverse combination of sensory symptoms and disorders of higher nervous activity, such as memory deficiency, anxiety, depression, anhedonia, etc. This suggests the participation of brain structures, including the hippocampus, in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. The elucidation of central sensitization mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain cognitive and affective symptoms may be useful in the development of new and effective treatments for these common disorders. The study aims to elucidate the effect of chronic neuropathic pain on cognitive function and underlying neuronal plasticity in the hippocampus.

          Methods

          Chronic constriction injury of mouse right hind limb sciatic nerve was used as a model of neuropathic pain. The presence of neuropathic pain was confirmed by the thermal and mechanical allodynia. The morphology of the CA1 pyramidal neurons and the dentate gyrus (DG) granule neurons were studied using Golgi-Cox staining. The hippocampal proteins concentration was determined by immunohistochemistry and ELISA.

          Results

          Behavioral testing revealed reduced locomotor activity as well as impaired working and long-term memory in mice with a ligated nerve. We revealed changes in the dendritic tree morphology in CA1 and the dentate gyrus hippocampal subregions. We found the atrophy of the CA1 pyramidal neurons and an increase in the dendritic tree complexity in DG. Moreover, changes in the density of dendritic spines were observed in these regions. In addition, we revealed increased expression of the Arc protein in DG granule neurons and decreased surface expression of AMPA receptors within the hippocampus. Decreased AMPA receptors expression underlies observed altered dendrite arborization and dendritic spines morphology.

          Discussion

          We found that pain information entering the hippocampus causes neuronal plasticity changes. The changes in neurite arborization, dendritic length and dendritic spines morphology as well as protein expression are observed within the hippocampal regions involved in the processing of pain information. Moreover, changes in the dendrite morphology in hippocampal subregions are different due to the anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the hippocampus. Apparently, the detected morphological and biochemical changes can underlie the observed hippocampus-dependent behavioral and cognitive impairment in animals with neuropathic pain.

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          Most cited references 37

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          A peripheral mononeuropathy in rat that produces disorders of pain sensation like those seen in man

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            Dendritic organization in the neurons of the visual and motor cortices of the cat.

             D SHOLL (1953)
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              GABA regulates synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain.

              Adult neurogenesis, the birth and integration of new neurons from adult neural stem cells, is a striking form of structural plasticity and highlights the regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian brain. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuronal activity regulates adult neurogenesis and that new neurons contribute to specific brain functions. The mechanism that regulates the integration of newly generated neurons into the pre-existing functional circuitry in the adult brain is unknown. Here we show that newborn granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus are tonically activated by ambient GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) before being sequentially innervated by GABA- and glutamate-mediated synaptic inputs. GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, initially exerts an excitatory action on newborn neurons owing to their high cytoplasmic chloride ion content. Conversion of GABA-induced depolarization (excitation) into hyperpolarization (inhibition) in newborn neurons leads to marked defects in their synapse formation and dendritic development in vivo. Our study identifies an essential role for GABA in the synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain, and suggests an unexpected mechanism for activity-dependent regulation of adult neurogenesis, in which newborn neurons may sense neuronal network activity through tonic and phasic GABA activation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                JPR
                jpainres
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove
                1178-7090
                11 February 2020
                2020
                : 13
                : 345-354
                Affiliations
                [1 ]A.V. Zhirmunsky National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences , Vladivostok, Russia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Igor Manzhulo Palchevskogo Str, 17, Vladivostok690041, RussiaTel +7 9502967287 Email i-manzhulo@bk.ru
                Article
                238458
                10.2147/JPR.S238458
                7023911
                © 2020 Tyrtyshnaia and Manzhulo.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 45, Pages: 10
                Funding
                This study is supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project # 17-74-20006).
                Categories
                Original Research

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