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      Types of Feeding and Presence of Harmful Oral Habits in Children with Cleft Lip and/or Palate: A Pilot Study


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          Abstract Objective: To verify the relationship between the types of feeding and presence of harmful oral habits (HOH) in children with cleft lip (CL), palate (CP) and cleft lip and palate (CLP), as well as to compare the different types of cleft to each other. Material and Methods: A form was applied to the parents of 162 children (3-5 years old), addressing the following variables: gender, cleft type, age, socioeconomic conditions, type of breastfeeding, presence of HOH, and the parents' knowledge about the consequences of oral habits. The data obtained were analyzed by chi-square test (p<0.05). Results: The majority of children (83.3%) were bottle-fed and 12.3% were exclusively maternal breastfed. The main reason for weaning was the presence of cleft (59.9%). Breastfeeding was significantly higher in children with CL (75%) in comparison with CP (20%) and CLP (5%) (p<0.001). Children with CLP were 12 times more likely to be bottle-fed than children with CL (OR=12.21; CI=4.09-36.45). The prevalence of HOH was 37%. Sociodemographic characteristics were not associated with the presence of HOH (p>0.05). The type of feeding and cleft were not decisive to present some type of HOH (p>0.05) and 87% of parents stated that HOH could lead to serious complications of tooth misalignment. Conclusion: The type of feeding and fissure did not determine the acquisition of harmful oral habits in children with cleft. However, the greater the fissure's complexity, the lesser the chance of children receiving exclusive breastfeeding.

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          Breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking patterns related to the prevalence of anterior open bite in primary dentition

          Objective Nutritional, immunological and psychological benefits of exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life are unequivocally recognized. However, mothers should also be aware of the importance of breastfeeding for promoting adequate oral development. This study evaluated the association between breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking patterns and the prevalence of anterior open bite in primary dentition. Material and Methods Infant feeding and non-nutritive sucking were investigated in a 3-6 year-old sample of 1,377 children, from São Paulo city, Brazil. Children were grouped according to breastfeeding duration: G1 – non-breastfed, G2 – shorter than 6 months, G3 – interruption between 6 and 12 months, and G4 – longer than 12 months. Three calibrated dentists performed clinical examinations and classified overbite into 3 categories: normal, anterior open bite and deep bite. Chi-square tests (p<0.05) with odds ratio (OR) calculation were used for intergroup comparisons. The impact of breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking on the prevalence of anterior open bite was analyzed using binary logistic regression. Results The prevalence estimates of anterior open bite were: 31.9% (G1), 26.1% (G2), 22.1% (G3), and 6.2% (G4). G1 would have significantly more chances of having anterior open bite compared with G4; in the total sample (OR=7.1) and in the subgroup without history of non-nutritive sucking (OR=9.3). Prolonging breastfeeding for 12 months was associated with a 3.7 times lower chance of having anterior open bite. In each year of persistence with non-nutritive sucking habits, the chance of developing this malocclusion increased in 2.38 times. Conclusion Breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking durations demonstrated opposite effects on the prediction of anterior open bite. Non-breastfed children presented significantly greater chances of having anterior open bite compared with those who were breastfed for periods longer than 12 months, demonstrating the beneficial influence of breastfeeding on dental occlusion.
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            Effects of breast-feeding duration, bottle-feeding duration and non-nutritive sucking habits on the occlusal characteristics of primary dentition

            Background Early transition from breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking habits may be related to occlusofacial abnormalities as environmental factors. Previous studies have not taken into account the potential for interactions between feeding practice, non-nutritive sucking habits and occlusal traits. This study assessed the effects of breast-feeding duration, bottle-feeding duration and non-nutritive sucking habits on the occlusal characteristics of primary dentition in 3–6-year-old children in Peking city. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted via an examination of the occlusal characteristics of 734 children combined with a questionnaire completed by their parents/guardians. The examination was performed by a single, previously calibrated examiner and the following variables were evaluated: presence or absence of deep overbite, open bite, anterior crossbite, posterior crossbite, deep overjet, terminal plane relationship of the second primary molar, primary canine relationship, crowding and spacing. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regressions were applied to analyze the associations. Results It was found that a short duration of breast-feeding (never or ≤6 months) was directly associated with posterior cross bite (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 1.11–8.82; P = 0.031) and no maxillary space (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.23–2.98; P = 0.038). In children breast-fed for ≤6 months, the probability of developing pacifier-sucking habits was 4 times that for those breast-fed for >6 months (OR = 4.21; 95% CI = 1.85–9.60; P = 0.0002). Children who were bottle-fed for over 18 months had a 1.45-fold higher risk of nonmesial step occlusion and a 1.43-fold higher risk of a class II canine relationship compared with those who were bottle-fed for up to 18 months. Non-nutritive sucking habits were also found to affect occlusion: A prolonged digit-sucking habit increased the probability of an anterior open bite, while a pacifier-sucking habit associated with excessive overjet and absence of lower arch developmental space. Conclusion Breastfeeding duration was shown to be associated with the prevalence of posterior crossbite, no maxillary space in the deciduous dentition and development of a pacifier-sucking habit. Children who had a digit-sucking habit were more likely to develop an open bite.
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              Association between early weaning, non-nutritive sucking habits and occlusal anomalies in 3-year-old Finnish children.

              OBJECTIVES, DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Earlier results on the effect of breastfeeding on the one hand, and non-nutritive sucking habits (pacifier and/or digit sucking) on the other, on the orofacial development of infants are inconclusive. Thus we studied the prevalence of malocclusions and their relationship to the duration of breastfeeding and to non-nutritive sucking habits in a group of randomly selected 3-year-old children (n = 148).

                Author and article information

                Pesquisa Brasileira em Odontopediatria e Clínica Integrada
                Pesqui. Bras. Odontopediatria Clín. Integr.
                Associação de Apoio à Pesquisa em Saúde Bucal (João Pessoa, PB, Brazil )
                : 20
                : e0063
                [1] Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro orgnameUniversidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro orgdiv1School of Dentistry orgdiv2Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics Brazil
                [2] Bauru SP orgnameUniversity of São Paulo orgdiv1Bauru School of Dentistry orgdiv2Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies Brazil
                S1983-46322020000100434 S1983-4632(20)02000000434

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                : 29 March 2020
                : 25 May 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 30, Pages: 0

                SciELO Brazil

                Original Article

                Cleft Lip,Pacifiers,Habits,Breast Feeding,Cleft Palate
                Cleft Lip, Pacifiers, Habits, Breast Feeding, Cleft Palate


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