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      Role of everolimus in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma

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          Abstract

          The therapeutic options in metastatic renal cell carcinoma have been recently expanded by the discovery of the VHL gene, the mutation of which is associated with development of clear cell carcinoma, and overexpression of the angiogenesis pathway, resulting in a very vascular tumor. This breakthrough in science led to the development of a variety of small molecules inhibiting the VEGF-dependent angiogenic pathway, such as sunitinib and sorafenib. These agents prolong overall and progression-free survival, respectively. The result was the development of robust front-line therapies which ultimately fail and are associated with disease progression. In this setting, there existed an unmet need for developing second-line therapies for patients with refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma (MRCC). Everolimus (RAD 001) is an oral inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. The double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial of everolimus (RECORD-1) conducted in MRCC patients after progression on sunitinib or sorafenib, or both, demonstrated a progression-free survival benefit favoring the study drug (4.9 months vs 1.9 months, HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.43, P ≤ 0 0.001). Everolimus thus established itself as a standard of care in the second-line setting for patients with MRCC who have failed treatment with VEGF receptor inhibitors.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Cancer Statistics, 2008

           A. Jemal,  R. Siegel,  E. Ward (2008)
          Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths expected in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival based on incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Incidence and death rates are age-standardized to the 2000 US standard million population. A total of 1,437,180 new cancer cases and 565,650 deaths from cancer are projected to occur in the United States in 2008. Notable trends in cancer incidence and mortality include stabilization of incidence rates for all cancer sites combined in men from 1995 through 2004 and in women from 1999 through 2004 and a continued decrease in the cancer death rate since 1990 in men and since 1991 in women. Overall cancer death rates in 2004 compared with 1990 in men and 1991 in women decreased by 18.4% and 10.5%, respectively, resulting in the avoidance of over a half million deaths from cancer during this time interval. This report also examines cancer incidence, mortality, and survival by site, sex, race/ethnicity, education, geographic area, and calendar year, as well as the proportionate contribution of selected sites to the overall trends. Although much progress has been made in reducing mortality rates, stabilizing incidence rates, and improving survival, cancer still accounts for more deaths than heart disease in persons under age 85 years. Further progress can be accelerated by supporting new discoveries and by applying existing cancer control knowledge across all segments of the population.
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            Bevacizumab plus interferon alfa compared with interferon alfa monotherapy in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: CALGB 90206.

            Bevacizumab is an antibody that binds to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and has activity in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Interferon alfa (IFN) is a historic standard first-line treatment for RCC. A prospective, randomized phase III trial of bevacizumab plus IFN versus IFN monotherapy was conducted. Patients with previously untreated, metastatic clear-cell RCC were randomly assigned to receive either bevacizumab (10 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks) plus IFN (9 million U subcutaneously three times weekly) or the same dose and schedule of IFN monotherapy in a multicenter phase III trial. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end points were progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and safety. Between October 2003 and July 2005, 732 patients were enrolled. The prespecified stopping rule for OS has not yet been reached. The median PFS was 8.5 months in patients receiving bevacizumab plus IFN (95% CI, 7.5 to 9.7 months) versus 5.2 months (95% CI, 3.1 to 5.6 months) in patients receiving IFN monotherapy (log-rank P < .0001). The adjusted hazard ratio was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.61 to 0.83; P < .0001). Bevacizumab plus IFN had a higher ORR as compared with IFN (25.5% [95% CI, 20.9% to 30.6%] v 13.1% [95% CI, 9.5% to 17.3%]; P < .0001). Overall toxicity was greater for bevacizumab plus IFN, including significantly more grade 3 hypertension (9% v 0%), anorexia (17% v 8%), fatigue (35% v 28%), and proteinuria (13% v 0%). Bevacizumab plus IFN produces a superior PFS and ORR in untreated patients with metastatic RCC as compared with IFN monotherapy. Toxicity is greater in the combination therapy arm.
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              mTOR, translation initiation and cancer.

              Control of mRNA translation plays a fundamental role in many aspects of cell metabolism. It constitutes a critical step in the control of gene expression, and consequently cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. Translation is regulated in response to nutrient availability, hormones, mitogenic and growth factor stimulation and is coupled with cell cycle progression and cell growth. Signaling by the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway profoundly affects mRNA translation through phosphorylation of downstream targets such as 4E-BP and S6K. Inhibitors of this pathway and thus cap-dependent translation are emerging as promising therapeutic options for the treatment of cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2009
                2009
                15 September 2009
                : 5
                : 699-706
                Affiliations
                [1 ] University of Texas Health Sciences Center, MC-8221, Division of Hematology and Oncology, San Antonio, Texas, USA
                [2 ] CCF Lerner College of Medicine Division of Hematology and Oncology, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Saby George, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, MC-8221, Division of Hematology and Oncology 7979 Wurzbach Rd, San Antonio, TX-78229, USA, Tel +1 210-450-1667, Fax +1 210-450-1666, Email georges3@ 123456uthscsa.edu
                Article
                tcrm-5-699
                2747388
                19774211
                © 2009 George and Bukowski, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

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