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      Characteristics of interventional cardiologists and their work practices for the study on radiation-induced lens opacities based on the methodology developed by ELDO—preliminary results


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          Preliminary results of the Polish epidemiology study on eye lens opacities among interventional cardiologists (ICs), based on the methodology proposed by ELDO (epidemiological studies of radio-induced cataracts in interventional cardiologists and radiologists: methodology implementation), are presented. The aim of the study is to test the hypothesis concerning the excess risk of cataract in the group of ICs. The first results concern the study population characteristics, including the most important confounding factors for cataract, as well as a detailed description of the work practices in interventional cardiology needed in order to reconstruct the cumulative eye lens dose. The data from 69 ICs and 23 controls collected based on the general medical questionnaire and the occupational questionnaire (for ICs only) were analyzed. The mean age of ICs and of the control group was 41 and 44, respectively, while the mean duration of work for exposed physicians was 9 years. The analysis of the data from the occupational questionnaire concerning the procedures performed, the use of various access routes, as well as radiation protection tools (eye lens glasses, ceiling suspended transparent shield, etc.) are also presented. On the basis of this information and additional assumptions about the doses per procedure (as well as reduction factors for various types of radiation measures), the cumulative doses to the eye lens of ICs were evaluated. They ranged up to 1.55 Sv and 0.4 Sv for left and right eye, respectively; however, the dose to only 3% of ICs exceeded the new threshold for development of eye lens opacities (0.5 Gy) proposed by the ICRP.

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          Radiation cataractogenesis: a review of recent studies.

          The lens of the eye is recognized as one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the human body, and it is known that cataracts can be induced by acute doses of less than 2 Gy of low-LET ionizing radiation and less than 5 Gy of protracted radiation. Although much work has been carried out in this area, the exact mechanisms of radiation cataractogenesis are still not fully understood. In particular, the question of the threshold dose for cataract development is not resolved. Cataracts have been classified as a deterministic effect of radiation exposure with a threshold of approximately 2 Gy. Here we review the combined results of recent mechanistic and human studies regarding induction of cataracts by ionizing radiation. These studies indicate that the threshold for cataract development is certainly less than was previously estimated, of the order of 0.5 Gy, or that radiation cataractogenesis may in fact be more accurately described by a linear, no-threshold model.
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            Risk of cataract after exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation: a 20-year prospective cohort study among US radiologic technologists.

            The study aim was to determine the risk of cataract among radiologic technologists with respect to occupational and nonoccupational exposures to ionizing radiation and to personal characteristics. A prospective cohort of 35,705 cataract-free US radiologic technologists aged 24-44 years was followed for nearly 20 years (1983-2004) by using two follow-up questionnaires. During the study period, 2,382 cataracts and 647 cataract extractions were reported. Cigarette smoking for >or=5 pack-years; body mass index of >or=25 kg/m(2); and history of diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or arthritis at baseline were significantly (p or=3 x-rays to the face/neck was associated with a hazard ratio of cataract of 1.25 (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.47). For workers in the highest category (mean, 60 mGy) versus lowest category (mean, 5 mGy) of occupational dose to the lens of the eye, the adjusted hazard ratio of cataract was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.40). Findings challenge the National Council on Radiation Protection and International Commission on Radiological Protection assumptions that the lowest cumulative ionizing radiation dose to the lens of the eye that can produce a progressive cataract is approximately 2 Gy, and they support the hypothesis that the lowest cataractogenic dose in humans is substantially less than previously thought.
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              Risk for radiation-induced cataract for staff in interventional cardiology: is there reason for concern?

              To examine the prevalence of radiation-associated lens opacities among interventional cardiologists and nurses and correlate with occupational radiation exposure. Interventional cardiology personnel are exposed to relatively high levels of X-rays and based on recent findings of radiation-associated lens opacities in other cohorts, they may be at risk for cataract without use of ocular radiation protection. Eyes of interventional cardiologists, nurses, and age- and sex-matched unexposed controls were screened by dilated slit lamp examination and posterior lens changes graded using a modified Merriam-Focht technique. Individual cumulative lens X-ray exposure was calculated from responses to a questionnaire and personal interview. The prevalence of radiation-associated posterior lens opacities was 52% (29/56, 95% CI: 35-73) for interventional cardiologists, 45% (5/11, 95% CI: 15-100) for nurses, and 9% (2/22, 95% CI: 1-33) for controls. Relative risks of lens opacity was 5.7 (95% CI: 1.5-22) for interventional cardiologists and 5.0 (95% CI: 1.2-21) for nurses. Estimated cumulative ocular doses ranged from 0.01 to 43 Gy with mean and median values of 3.4 and 1.0 Gy, respectively. A strong dose-response relationship was found between occupational exposure and the prevalence of radiation-associated posterior lens changes. These findings demonstrate a dose dependent increased risk of posterior lens opacities for interventional cardiologists and nurses when radiation protection tools are not used. While study of a larger cohort is needed to confirm these findings, the results suggest ocular radio-protection should be utilized. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

                Author and article information

                J Radiat Res
                J. Radiat. Res
                Journal of Radiation Research
                Oxford University Press
                July 2016
                03 August 2016
                03 August 2016
                : 57
                : 4
                : 431-437
                [1 ]Department of Radiological Protection, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (NIOM), St Teresa 8, Łodz, 91–348, Poland
                [2 ]Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (NIOM), St Teresa 8, Łodz, 91–348, Poland
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. Department of Radiological Protection, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, St Teresa 8, Łodz, 91–348, Poland. Tel: +48-42-631-4529; Fax: +48-42-631-4539; E-mail: jdom@ 123456imp.lodz.pl
                © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com

                Page count
                Pages: 7
                Funded by: Open Access publication;
                Award ID: FP7/249689
                Short Communication

                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                Oncology & Radiotherapy


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