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      A thorough QT study to assess the effects of tbo-filgrastim on cardiac repolarization in healthy subjects


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          Tbo-filgrastim is a recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to reduce the duration of severe neutropenia in patients with nonmyeloid malignancies receiving myelosuppressive anticancer drugs associated with a clinically significant incidence of febrile neutropenia. We assessed the effect of tbo-filgrastim on cardiac conduction and repolarization in healthy subjects. A three-arm, parallel-group, active- and placebo-controlled, double-blind study randomized healthy adults to a single 5 μg/kg intravenous tbo-filgrastim infusion, a single intravenous placebo infusion, or a single 400 mg moxifloxacin oral dose. The primary end point was placebo-corrected time-matched change from baseline in QT interval corrected using a QT individual correction (QTcI) method. Secondary end points included heart rate, PR interval, QRS duration, change in electrocardiogram patterns, correlation between QTcI change from baseline (milliseconds) and tbo-filgrastim serum concentrations, and safety variables. A total of 145 subjects were enrolled (50 tbo-filgrastim, 50 placebo, 45 moxifloxacin). Peak placebo-corrected change from baseline for QTcI with tbo-filgrastim was 3.5 milliseconds, with a two-sided 95% upper confidence interval of 7.2 milliseconds, demonstrating no signal for any tbo-filgrastim effect on QTc. Concentration-effect modeling showed no evidence of an effect of tbo-filgrastim on cardiac repolarization. Tbo-filgrastim produced no clinically significant changes in other electrocardiogram parameters. Tbo-filgrastim was well tolerated.

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          Quantitative relationships between circulating leukocytes and infection in patients with acute leukemia.

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            Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia: risks, consequences, and new directions for its management.

            Cytotoxic chemotherapy suppresses the hematopoietic system, impairing host protective mechanisms and limiting the doses of chemotherapy that can be tolerated. Neutropenia, the most serious hematologic toxicity, is associated with the risk of life-threatening infections as well as chemotherapy dose reductions and delays that may compromise treatment outcomes. The authors reviewed the recent literature to provide an update on research in chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and its complications and impact, and they discuss the implications of this work for improving the management of patients with cancer who are treated with myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Despite its importance as the primary dose-limiting toxicity of chemotherapy, much concerning neutropenia and its consequences and impact remains unknown. Recent surveys indicate that neutropenia remains a prevalent problem associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and costs. Much research has sought to identify risk factors that may predispose patients to neutropenic complications, including febrile neutropenia, in an effort to predict better which patients are at risk and to use preventive strategies, such as prophylactic colony-stimulating factors, more cost-effectively. Neutropenic complications associated with myelosuppressive chemotherapy are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, possibly compromised treatment outcomes, and excess healthcare costs. Research in quantifying the risk of neutropenic complications may make it possible in the near future to target patients at greater risk with appropriate preventive strategies, thereby maximizing the benefits and minimizing the costs. Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.
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              Impact of primary prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on febrile neutropenia and mortality in adult cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a systematic review.

              Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of prophylactic granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) have demonstrated a significant reduction in febrile neutropenia (FN) after systemic chemotherapy. Several RCTs have been published recently that investigate the impact of G-CSF on mortality and relative dose-intensity (RDI). A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of all reported RCTs comparing primary prophylactic G-CSF with placebo or untreated controls in adult solid tumor and malignant lymphoma patients was undertaken without language restrictions, using electronic databases, conference proceedings, and hand-searching techniques. Two reviewers extracted data independently. Summary estimates of relative risk (RR) with 95% CIs were estimated based on the method of Mantel-Haenszel and DerSimonian and Laird. Seventeen RCTs were identified including 3,493 patients. For infection-related mortality, RR reduction with G-CSF compared with controls was 45% (RR = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.90; P = .018); for early mortality (all-cause mortality during chemotherapy period), it was 40% (RR = 0.60; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.83; P = .002); and for FN, it was 46% (RR = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.67; P < .001). Average RDI was significantly higher in patients who received G-CSF compared with control patients (P < .001). Bone or musculoskeletal pain was reported in 10.4% of controls and 19.6% of G-CSF patients (RR = 4.03; 95% CI, 2.15 to 7.52; P < .001). Significant reductions in FN with G-CSF were observed in studies allowing secondary G-CSF prophylaxis in controls and in the three trials with concurrent prophylactic antibiotics in both treatment arms. Prophylactic G-CSF reduces the risk of FN and early deaths, including infection-related mortality, while increasing RDI and musculoskeletal pain. There are insufficient data to assess the impact of G-CSF on disease-free and overall survival.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                15 May 2015
                : 9
                : 2653-2662
                [1 ]R&D, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd, Netanya, Israel
                [2 ]Biosimilars Clinical Development, CPP Teva ratiopharm, Merckle GmbH, Ulm, Germany
                [3 ]Global Cardiology, eResearch Technology Inc, Philadelphia, PA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Liat Adar, R&D, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd, 12 Hatrufa Street, Industrial Zone, Netanya 42504, Israel, Tel +972 9 892 1741, Fax +972 9 865 3779, Email liat.adar@ 123456teva.co.il
                © 2015 Adar et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                tbo-filgrastim,electrocardiogram,qt interval,granulocyte colony-stimulating factor


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