31
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      In situ sprayed bioresponsive immunotherapeutic gel for post-surgical cancer treatment

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Cancer recurrence after surgical resection remains a significant cause of treatment failure. Here, we have developed an in situ formed immunotherapeutic bioresponsive gel that controls both local tumour recurrence after surgery and development of distant tumours. Briefly, calcium carbonate nanoparticles pre-loaded with the anti-CD47 antibody are encapsulated in the fibrin gel and scavenge H+ in the surgical wound, allowing polarization of tumour-associated macrophages to the M1-like phenotype. The released anti-CD47 antibody blocks the 'don't eat me' signal in cancer cells, thereby increasing phagocytosis of cancer cells by macrophages. Macrophages can promote effective antigen presentation and initiate T cell mediated immune responses that control tumour growth. Our findings indicate that the immunotherapeutic fibrin gel 'awakens' the host innate and adaptive immune systems to inhibit both local tumour recurrence post surgery and potential metastatic spread.

          Related collections

          Most cited references19

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          The blockade of immune checkpoints in cancer immunotherapy.

          Among the most promising approaches to activating therapeutic antitumour immunity is the blockade of immune checkpoints. Immune checkpoints refer to a plethora of inhibitory pathways hardwired into the immune system that are crucial for maintaining self-tolerance and modulating the duration and amplitude of physiological immune responses in peripheral tissues in order to minimize collateral tissue damage. It is now clear that tumours co-opt certain immune-checkpoint pathways as a major mechanism of immune resistance, particularly against T cells that are specific for tumour antigens. Because many of the immune checkpoints are initiated by ligand-receptor interactions, they can be readily blocked by antibodies or modulated by recombinant forms of ligands or receptors. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) antibodies were the first of this class of immunotherapeutics to achieve US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. Preliminary clinical findings with blockers of additional immune-checkpoint proteins, such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), indicate broad and diverse opportunities to enhance antitumour immunity with the potential to produce durable clinical responses.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Macrophage migration inhibitory factor: a regulator of innate immunity

            Key Points Cytokines are essential effector molecules of innate immunity that initiate and coordinate the cellular and humoral responses aimed, for example, at the eradication of microbial pathogens. Discovered in the late 1960s as a product of activated T cells, the cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been discovered recently to carry out important functions as a mediator of the innate immune system. Constitutively expressed by a broad spectrum of cells and tissues, including monocytes and macrophages, MIF is rapidly released after exposure to microbial products and pro-inflammatory mediators, and in response to stress. After it is released, MIF induces pro-inflammatory biological responses that act as a regulator of immune responses. MIF activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1)/ERK2–mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, inhibits the activity of JUN activation domain-binding protein 1 (JAB1) — a co-activator of the activator protein 1 (AP1) — upregulates the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 to promote the recognition of endotoxin-expressing bacterial pathogens, sustains pro-inflammatory function by inhibiting p53-dependent apoptosis of macrophages and counter-regulates the immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids on immune cells. As a pro-inflammatory mediator, MIF has been shown to be implicated in the pathogenesis of severe sepsis and septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and several other inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, glomerulonephritis and inflammatory bowel diseases. Given its crucial role as a regulator of innate and acquired immunity, pharmacological or immunological modulation of MIF activity might offer new treatment opportunities for the management of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Radiotherapy plus chemotherapy with or without surgical resection for stage III non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase III randomised controlled trial.

              Results from phase II studies in patients with stage IIIA non-small-cell lung cancer with ipsilateral mediastinal nodal metastases (N2) have shown the feasibility of resection after concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy with promising rates of survival. We therefore did this phase III trial to compare concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy followed by resection with standard concurrent chemotherapy and definitive radiotherapy without resection. Patients with stage T1-3pN2M0 non-small-cell lung cancer were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to concurrent induction chemotherapy (two cycles of cisplatin [50 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, 29, and 36] and etoposide [50 mg/m(2) on days 1-5 and 29-33]) plus radiotherapy (45 Gy) in multiple academic and community hospitals. If no progression, patients in group 1 underwent resection and those in group 2 continued radiotherapy uninterrupted up to 61 Gy. Two additional cycles of cisplatin and etoposide were given in both groups. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00002550. 202 patients (median age 59 years, range 31-77) were assigned to group 1 and 194 (61 years, 32-78) to group 2. Median OS was 23.6 months (IQR 9.0-not reached) in group 1 versus 22.2 months (9.4-52.7) in group 2 (hazard ratio [HR] 0.87 [0.70-1.10]; p=0.24). Number of patients alive at 5 years was 37 (point estimate 27%) in group 1 and 24 (point estimate 20%) in group 2 (odds ratio 0.63 [0.36-1.10]; p=0.10). With N0 status at thoracotomy, the median OS was 34.4 months (IQR 15.7-not reached; 19 [point estimate 41%] patients alive at 5 years). Progression-free survival (PFS) was better in group 1 than in group 2, median 12.8 months (5.3-42.2) vs 10.5 months (4.8-20.6), HR 0.77 [0.62-0.96]; p=0.017); the number of patients without disease progression at 5 years was 32 (point estimate 22%) versus 13 (point estimate 11%), respectively. Neutropenia and oesophagitis were the main grade 3 or 4 toxicities associated with chemotherapy plus radiotherapy in group 1 (77 [38%] and 20 [10%], respectively) and group 2 (80 [41%] and 44 [23%], respectively). In group 1, 16 (8%) deaths were treatment related versus four (2%) in group 2. In an exploratory analysis, OS was improved for patients who underwent lobectomy, but not pneumonectomy, versus chemotherapy plus radiotherapy. Chemotherapy plus radiotherapy with or without resection (preferably lobectomy) are options for patients with stage IIIA(N2) non-small-cell lung cancer. National Cancer Institute, Canadian Cancer Society, and National Cancer Institute of Canada.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Nanotechnology
                Nature Nanotech
                Springer Nature
                1748-3387
                1748-3395
                December 10 2018
                Article
                10.1038/s41565-018-0319-4
                30531990
                848eea80-9c44-439d-9851-084718f00fa9
                © 2018

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

                History

                Comments

                Comment on this article