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      First Serological Evidence of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus and Rift Valley Fever Virus in Ruminants in Tunisia

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          Abstract

          Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV, Nairoviridae family) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, Phenuiviridae family) are zoonotic vector-borne pathogens with clinical relevance worldwide. Our study aimed to determine seroprevalences of these viruses and potential risk factors among livestock (cattle, sheep, and goats) in Tunisia. Sera were tested for antibodies against CCHFV (n = 879) and RVFV (n = 699) using various enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and indirect immunofluorescence assays (IIFA). The overall seroprevalence of IgG antibodies was 8.6% (76/879) and 2.3% (16/699) against CCHFV and RVFV, respectively. For CCHF seropositivity bioclimatic zones and breed were potential risk factors for the three tested animal species; while the season was associated with cattle and sheep seropositivity, tick infestation was associated with cattle and goats seropositivity and age as a risk factor was only associated with cattle seropositivity. Age and season were significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity in sheep. Our results confirm the circulation of CCHFV and RVFV in Tunisia and identified the principal risk factors in ruminants. This knowledge could help to mitigate the risk of ruminant infections and subsequently also human infections.

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          Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever

          Summary Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an often fatal viral infection described in about 30 countries, and it has the most extensive geographic distribution of the medically important tickborne viral diseases, closely approximating the known global distribution of Hyalomma spp ticks. Human beings become infected through tick bites, by crushing infected ticks, after contact with a patient with CCHF during the acute phase of infection, or by contact with blood or tissues from viraemic livestock. Clinical features commonly show a dramatic progression characterised by haemorrhage, myalgia, and fever. The levels of liver enzymes, creatinine phosphokinase, and lactate dehydrogenase are raised, and bleeding markers are prolonged. Infection of the endothelium has a major pathogenic role. Besides direct infection of the endothelium, indirect damage by viral factors or virus-mediated host-derived soluble factors that cause endothelial activations and dysfunction are thought to occur. In diagnosis, enzyme-linked immunoassay and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR are used. Early diagnosis is critical for patient therapy and prevention of potential nosocomial infections. Supportive therapy is the most essential part of case management. Recent studies suggest that ribavirin is effective against CCHF, although definitive studies are not available. Health-care workers have a serious risk of infection, particularly during care of patients with haemorrhages from the nose, mouth, gums, vagina, and injection sites. Simple barrier precautions have been reported to be effective.
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            Enzootic hepatitis or rift valley fever. An undescribed virus disease of sheep cattle and man from east africa

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              Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus genomics and global diversity.

              Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a severe illness with high case fatality that occurs in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, and Asia. The complete genomes of 13 geographically and temporally diverse virus strains were determined, and CCHF viruses were found to be highly variable with 20 and 8%, 31 and 27%, and 22 and 10% nucleotide and deduced amino acid differences detected among virus S (nucleocapsid), M (glycoprotein), and L (polymerase) genome segments, respectively. Distinct geographic lineages exist, but with multiple exceptions indicative of long-distance virus movement. Discrepancies among the virus S, M, and L phylogenetic tree topologies document multiple RNA segment reassortment events. An analysis of individual segment datasets suggests genetic recombination also occurs. For an arthropod-borne virus, the genomic plasticity of CCHF virus is surprisingly high.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Pathogens
                Pathogens
                pathogens
                Pathogens
                MDPI
                2076-0817
                18 June 2021
                June 2021
                : 10
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratory of Viruses Vectors and Hosts (LR20IPT02), Institute Pasteur of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, Tunis 1002, Tunisia; khawlazouaghi@ 123456gmail.com (K.Z.); ali.bouattour@ 123456pasteur.tn (A.B.); aounallahhajer@ 123456gmail.com (H.A.)
                [2 ]Division Highly Pathogenic Viruses, Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens, Robert Koch Institute, Seestraße 10, 13353 Berlin, Germany; SurteesR@ 123456rki.de (R.S.); KrauseE@ 123456rki.de (E.K.); MichelJ@ 123456rki.de (J.M.); NitscheA@ 123456rki.de (A.N.)
                [3 ]Service de Microbiologie et Immunologie, Ecole Nationale de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Manouba, Sidi Thabet 2020, Tunisia; aymen.mamlouk@ 123456enmv.uma.tn
                Author notes
                Article
                pathogens-10-00769
                10.3390/pathogens10060769
                8234966
                848f57d1-a0cc-4020-b036-29a048b4c2d3
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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