Continuous monitoring of Listeria spp., particularly Listeria monocytogenes, in foods is a mandatory task for food safety and microbiology sectors. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of L. monocytogenes in milk and dairy products retailed in Egypt. Furthermore, an experimental trial was conducted to investigate the antilisterial effects of some phytochemicals. A total of 200 samples (market raw milk, Kareish cheese, Damietta cheese, and plain yoghurt, 50 each) were collected and examined for detection of Listeria spp. The results revealed that 8, 12, 1, and 0 samples of market raw milk, Damietta cheese, Kareish cheese, and plain yoghurt were contaminated with Listeria spp., respectively. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing revealed that all L. monocytogenes isolates (15) were resistant to streptomycin and erythromycin. Molecular analysis revealed that 86.67% of L. monocytogenes harbored hylA virulent gene. Use of rosmarinic acid, ascorbic acid, thyme, and clove essential oils significantly ( ) reduced L. monocytogenes growth in soft cheese—artificially contaminated with L. monocytogenes throughout a 4-week incubation period. In conclusion, strict hygienic conditions should be adopted during the preparation and distribution of dairy products. In addition, rosmarinic acid, ascorbic acid, clove, and thyme essential oils are good candidates as food preservatives with antilisterial activities.