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      Nobody says to you “come back in six months and we’ll see how you’re doing”: a qualitative interview study exploring young adults’ experiences of sport-related knee injury

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          Abstract

          Background

          Regular exercise is vital for overall health, and key to the maintenance of joint health. However, whilst people are encouraged to participate in sport and exercise, many are unaware that they could be at risk of developing post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) in the years following sport-related injury. Younger adults (< 40 years) with PTOA can experience declining quality of life, comorbid health conditions, and symptoms that place a chronic burden on health services. Conserving knee health through careful self-management in the latency period between injury and the onset of PTOA may help to delay disease progression. In this regard, the development of self-management interventions can be facilitated by understanding the post-injury experiences of young adults and their attitudes towards joint health.

          Methods

          Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 young adults following a sport-related knee injury to explore their experiences of injury, and their attitudes and perceptions of self-managing knee health. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed systematically using an inductive approach.

          Results

          Four themes pertaining to participants’ experiences were identified: [1] perceptions of current care provision; [2] long-term impact of knee injury; [3] motivation to conserve knee health; and [4] opportunities for supplementary support. The expression “Nobody says to you ‘come back in six months and we’ll see how you’re doing’” personifies the long-term impact of knee injury on young adults and a paucity of care provision.

          Conclusion

          Participants did not perceive that they had adequate care in the aftermath of knee injury, leading to a sense of frustration and uncertainty. This had implications for continued participation in sport and exercise, negatively impacting their athletic identity and sense of wellbeing. Activity tracking, symptom monitoring, advice provision and peer support were identified as tools to enable individuals to self-manage knee health.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Are joint injury, sport activity, physical activity, obesity, or occupational activities predictors for osteoarthritis? A systematic review.

          Systematic review with meta-analysis. To identify risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, hip, and ankle, including joint injury, sport, physical activity, overweight/obesity, and occupational activity, in all age groups. OA is a significant health problem worldwide, affecting up to 10% of men and 18% of women over 60 years of age. There has not been a comprehensive review examining modifiable physical risk factors associated with the onset of OA. This evidence is important to inform the physiotherapy management of individuals following onset of OA. Twelve electronic databases were systematically reviewed. The studies selected met the following criteria: (1) original data; (2) joint injury, sport activity, physical activity, overweight/obesity, and/or occupational activity investigated as risk factors; (3) outcomes included OA (hip, knee, and/or ankle); and (4) analytic component of study design. The data extracted included study design, years of follow-up, study population, OA definition, risk factors, and results (effect estimates reported or calculated where available). The quality of evidence was assessed based on a modified version of the Downs and Black checklist. Joint injury, obesity, and occupational activity were associated with an increased risk of OA of the knee and hip. Sport and physical activity produced inconsistent findings. Joint injury was identified as a significant risk factor for knee OA (combined odds ratio = 3.8; 95% confidence interval: 2.0, 7.2) and hip OA (combined odds ratio = 5.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 18.2), as was previous meniscectomy with or without anterior cruciate ligament injury for knee OA (combined odds ratio = 7.4; 95% confidence interval: 4.0, 13.7). There is a paucity of research examining risk factors associated with ankle OA; this review identified only 2 studies with this outcome. Joint injury, obesity, and occupational activity are associated with an increased risk of knee and hip OA. Some findings remain inconclusive, including levels of physical activity and sport specificity in individuals who do not suffer an injury. Early identification of individuals at risk for OA provides an opportunity for physiotherapy management or other interventions to modify risk-related behavior. There is a need in the literature for additional high-quality studies, such as prospective cohort studies, that minimize potential bias in examining the relationship between physical risk factors and OA. Prognosis, level 2a-.
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            "Beating osteoARThritis": development of a stepped care strategy to optimize utilization and timing of non-surgical treatment modalities for patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis.

            Inadequacies in health care practices have been reported despite existing guidelines to manage hip or knee osteoarthritis. To facilitate guideline implementation and improve utilization of non-surgical treatment options a care strategy should be developed. This study describes the development of an evidence-based, multidisciplinary, patient-centered, stepped care strategy. A national, multidisciplinary, steering group developed the strategy in three phases: (1) consensus among steering group members (first draft); (2) written consultation of 23 representatives of patient organizations and professional associations involved in osteoarthritis care (second draft); (3) consensus of the final draft after discussion in two rounds during a conference with representatives from the different disciplines. The final stepped care strategy presents, in three tiers, the optimal order for non-surgical treatment modalities. It recommends that more advanced options should only be considered if options listed in previous steps failed to produce satisfactory results. Hence, the first step treatment options can be offered to all patients but may also be provided through self care (education, life style advice, and acetaminophen). The second step (exercise therapy, dietary therapy, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) and third step treatment options (multidisciplinary care, intra-articular injections, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation) can be considered for people with persisting complaints. Trough a consensus procedure, we succeeded to develop a multidisciplinary, patient-centered, stepped care strategy based on national guidelines. This strategy provides a framework for health care providers and patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis to discuss the optimal timing of the various treatment options.
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              Establishing the credibility of qualitative research findings: the plot thickens.

              Qualitative research is increasingly recognized and valued and its unique place in nursing research is highlighted by many. Despite this, some nurse researchers continue to raise epistemological issues about the problems of objectivity and the validity of qualitative research findings. This paper explores the issues relating to the representativeness or credibility of qualitative research findings. It therefore critiques the existing distinct philosophical and methodological positions concerning the trustworthiness of qualitative research findings, which are described as follows: quantitative studies should be judged using the same criteria and terminology as quantitative studies; it is impossible, in a meaningful way, for any criteria to be used to judge qualitative studies; qualitative studies should be judged using criteria that are developed for and fit the qualitative paradigm; and the credibility of qualitative research findings could be established by testing out the emerging theory by means of conducting a deductive quantitative study. The authors conclude by providing some guidelines for establishing the credibility of qualitative research findings.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                R.Watkins@bath.ac.uk
                Journal
                BMC Musculoskelet Disord
                BMC Musculoskelet Disord
                BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2474
                1 July 2020
                1 July 2020
                2020
                : 21
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.7340.0, ISNI 0000 0001 2162 1699, University of Bath, ; Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY UK
                [2 ]Centre for Sport, Exercise and Osteoarthritis Research Versus Arthritis, Bath, UK
                Article
                3428
                10.1186/s12891-020-03428-6
                7329431
                32611403
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                Funding
                Funded by: Centre for Sport, Exercise and Osteoarthritis Research Versus Arthritis
                Award ID: 21595
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Orthopedics

                digital health, young adults, knee injury, self-management of health

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