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      Effect of Biosynthesized ZnO Nanoparticles on Multi-Drug Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa


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          Synthesis of nanoparticles using the plants has several advantages over other methods due to the environmentally friendly nature of plants. Besides being environmentally friendly, the synthesis of nanoparticles using plants or parts of the plants is also cost effective. The present study focuses on the biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using the seed extract of Butea monsoperma and their effect on to the quorum-mediated virulence factors of multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at sub minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The synthesized ZnO NPs were characterized by different techniques, such as Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The average size of the nanoparticles was 25 nm as analyzed by TEM. ZnO NPs at sub MIC decreased the production of virulence factors such as pyocyanin, protease and hemolysin for P. aeruginosa ( p ≤ 0.05). The interaction of NPs with the P. aeruginosa cells on increasing concentration of NPs at sub MIC levels showed greater accumulation of nanoparticles inside the cells as analyzed by TEM.

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          Review on Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: Antibacterial Activity and Toxicity Mechanism

          Antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) has received significant interest worldwide particularly by the implementation of nanotechnology to synthesize particles in the nanometer region. Many microorganisms exist in the range from hundreds of nanometers to tens of micrometers. ZnO-NPs exhibit attractive antibacterial properties due to increased specific surface area as the reduced particle size leading to enhanced particle surface reactivity. ZnO is a bio-safe material that possesses photo-oxidizing and photocatalysis impacts on chemical and biological species. This review covered ZnO-NPs antibacterial activity including testing methods, impact of UV illumination, ZnO particle properties (size, concentration, morphology, and defects), particle surface modification, and minimum inhibitory concentration. Particular emphasize was given to bactericidal and bacteriostatic mechanisms with focus on generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), OH− (hydroxyl radicals), and O2 −2 (peroxide). ROS has been a major factor for several mechanisms including cell wall damage due to ZnO-localized interaction, enhanced membrane permeability, internalization of NPs due to loss of proton motive force and uptake of toxic dissolved zinc ions. These have led to mitochondria weakness, intracellular outflow, and release in gene expression of oxidative stress which caused eventual cell growth inhibition and cell death. In some cases, enhanced antibacterial activity can be attributed to surface defects on ZnO abrasive surface texture. One functional application of the ZnO antibacterial bioactivity was discussed in food packaging industry where ZnO-NPs are used as an antibacterial agent toward foodborne diseases. Proper incorporation of ZnO-NPs into packaging materials can cause interaction with foodborne pathogens, thereby releasing NPs onto food surface where they come in contact with bad bacteria and cause the bacterial death and/or inhibition.
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            Identification and characterization of genes for a second anthranilate synthase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: interchangeability of the two anthranilate synthases and evolutionary implications.

            Two anthranilate synthase gene pairs have been identified in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They were cloned, sequenced, inactivated in vitro by insertion of an antibiotic resistance gene, and returned to P. aeruginosa, replacing the wild-type gene. One anthranilate synthase enzyme participates in tryptophan synthesis; its genes are designated trpE and trpG. The other anthranilate synthase enzyme, encoded by phnA and phnB, participates in the synthesis of pyocyanin, the characteristic phenazine pigment of the organism. trpE and trpG are independently transcribed; homologous genes have been cloned from Pseudomonas putida. The phenazine pathway genes phnA and phnB are cotranscribed. The cloned phnA phnB gene pair complements trpE and trpE(G) mutants of Escherichia coli. Homologous genes were not found in P. putida PPG1, a non-phenazine producer. Surprisingly, PhnA and PhnB are more closely related to E. coli TrpE and TrpG than to Pseudomonas TrpE and TrpG, whereas Pseudomonas TrpE and TrpG are more closely related to E. coli PabB and PabA than to E. coli TrpE and TrpG. We replaced the wild-type trpE on the P. aeruginosa chromosome with a mutant form having a considerable portion of its coding sequence deleted and replaced by a tetracycline resistance gene cassette. This resulted in tryptophan auxotrophy; however, spontaneous tryptophan-independent revertants appeared at a frequency of 10(-5) to 10(6). The anthranilate synthase of these revertants is not feedback inhibited by tryptophan, suggesting that it arises from PhnAB. phnA mutants retain a low level of pyocyanin production. Introduction of an inactivated trpE gene into a phnA mutant abolished residual pyocyanin production, suggesting that the trpE trpG gene products are capable of providing some anthranilate for pyocyanin synthesis.
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              Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using olive leaf extract and its antibacterial activity


                Author and article information

                Antibiotics (Basel)
                Antibiotics (Basel)
                17 May 2020
                May 2020
                : 9
                : 5
                : 260
                [1 ]Department of Microbiology, Nanotechnology and Antimicrobial Drug Resistance Research Laboratory, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, Uttar Pradesh, India; jalalmicro1981@ 123456gmail.com (M.J.); harismk2003@ 123456hotmail.com (H.M.K.)
                [2 ]Department of Epidemic Disease Research, Institute for Research & Medical Consultations (IRMC), Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 1982, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia
                [3 ]Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Qassim 51431, Saudi Arabia; dr.alzohairy@ 123456gmail.com
                [4 ]National Center for Biotechnology, Life Science and Environmental Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442, Saudi Arabia; malomary@ 123456kacst.edu.sa
                [5 ]National Center for Biotechnology, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442, Saudi Arabia; salyahya@ 123456kacst.edu.sa
                [6 ]Department of Biophysics, Institutes for Research and Medical Consultations (IRMC), Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia; smasiri@ 123456iau.edu.sa
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: syedmicro72@ 123456gmail.com (S.G.A.); maansari@ 123456iau.edu.sa (M.A.A.)
                Author information
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 28 April 2020
                : 15 May 2020

                p. aeruginosa,multidrug-resistant,quorum sensing,virulence factor,pyocyanin,zno nps


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