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      Melatonin-mediated temperature stress tolerance in plants

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          ABSTRACT

          Global climate changes cause extreme temperatures and a significant reduction in crop production, leading to food insecurity worldwide. Temperature extremes (including both heat and cold stresses) is one of the most limiting factors in plant growth and development and severely affect plant physiology, biochemical, and molecular processes. Biostimulants like melatonin (MET) have a multifunctional role that acts as a “defense molecule” to safeguard plants against the noxious effects of temperature stress. MET treatment improves plant growth and temperature tolerance by improving several defense mechanisms. Current research also suggests that MET interacts with other molecules, like phytohormones and gaseous molecules, which greatly supports plant adaptation to temperature stress. Genetic engineering via overexpression or CRISPR/Cas system of MET biosynthetic genes uplifts the MET levels in transgenic plants and enhances temperature stress tolerance. This review highlights the critical role of MET in plant production and tolerance against temperature stress. We have documented how MET interacts with other molecules to alleviate temperature stress. MET-mediated molecular breeding would be great potential in helping the adverse effects of temperature stress by creating transgenic plants.

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          Ror2 signaling regulates Golgi structure and transport through IFT20 for tumor invasiveness

          Signaling through the Ror2 receptor tyrosine kinase promotes invadopodia formation for tumor invasion. Here, we identify intraflagellar transport 20 (IFT20) as a new target of this signaling in tumors that lack primary cilia, and find that IFT20 mediates the ability of Ror2 signaling to induce the invasiveness of these tumors. We also find that IFT20 regulates the nucleation of Golgi-derived microtubules by affecting the GM130-AKAP450 complex, which promotes Golgi ribbon formation in achieving polarized secretion for cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, IFT20 promotes the efficiency of transport through the Golgi complex. These findings shed new insights into how Ror2 signaling promotes tumor invasiveness, and also advance the understanding of how Golgi structure and transport can be regulated.
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            ROS Are Good.

            Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to play a dual role in plant biology. They are required for many important signaling reactions, but are also toxic byproducts of aerobic metabolism. Recent studies revealed that ROS are necessary for the progression of several basic biological processes including cellular proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, cell death-that was previously thought to be the outcome of ROS directly killing cells by oxidation, in other words via oxidative stress-is now considered to be the result of ROS triggering a physiological or programmed pathway for cell death. This Opinion focuses on the possibility that ROS are beneficial to plants, supporting cellular proliferation, physiological function, and viability, and that maintaining a basal level of ROS in cells is essential for life.
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              Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidant Defense in Plants under Abiotic Stress: Revisiting the Crucial Role of a Universal Defense Regulator

              Global climate change and associated adverse abiotic stress conditions, such as drought, salinity, heavy metals, waterlogging, extreme temperatures, oxygen deprivation, etc., greatly influence plant growth and development, ultimately affecting crop yield and quality, as well as agricultural sustainability in general. Plant cells produce oxygen radicals and their derivatives, so-called reactive oxygen species (ROS), during various processes associated with abiotic stress. Moreover, the generation of ROS is a fundamental process in higher plants and employs to transmit cellular signaling information in response to the changing environmental conditions. One of the most crucial consequences of abiotic stress is the disturbance of the equilibrium between the generation of ROS and antioxidant defense systems triggering the excessive accumulation of ROS and inducing oxidative stress in plants. Notably, the equilibrium between the detoxification and generation of ROS is maintained by both enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant defense systems under harsh environmental stresses. Although this field of research has attracted massive interest, it largely remains unexplored, and our understanding of ROS signaling remains poorly understood. In this review, we have documented the recent advancement illustrating the harmful effects of ROS, antioxidant defense system involved in ROS detoxification under different abiotic stresses, and molecular cross-talk with other important signal molecules such as reactive nitrogen, sulfur, and carbonyl species. In addition, state-of-the-art molecular approaches of ROS-mediated improvement in plant antioxidant defense during the acclimation process against abiotic stresses have also been discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                GM Crops Food
                GM Crops Food
                GM Crops & Food
                Taylor & Francis
                2164-5698
                2164-5701
                19 August 2022
                2022
                19 August 2022
                : 13
                : 1
                : 196-217
                Affiliations
                [a ]College of Agriculture, Oil Crops Research Institute, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (FAFU); , Fuzhou, Fujian, China
                [b ]State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS); , Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
                [c ]Agronomy Department of Superior School Engineering, University of Almería; , Almería, Spain
                [d ]Grassland and Forage Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration; , Cheonan, Korea
                [e ]Department of Microbiology, University of Lagos; , Nigeria
                [f ]Department of Agricultural Genetic Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technologies, Nigde Omer Halisdemir University; , Turkey
                [g ]Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops (North China), Institute of Forestry and Pomology, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences; , Beijing, Peking, China
                Author notes
                CONTACT Ali Raza alirazamughal143@ 123456gmail.com College of Agriculture, Oil Crops Research Institute, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (FAFU); , Fuzhou, China
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5120-2791
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8077-7324
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6779-9599
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3508-1213
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2356-7806
                Article
                2106111
                10.1080/21645698.2022.2106111
                9397135
                35983948
                84b35b72-322c-436b-986f-8309df5bdd26
                © 2022 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, References: 138, Pages: 22
                Categories
                Review
                Review

                biostimulants,climate change,cold stress,crosstalk,food security,freezing temperature,genetic engineering

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