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      Beyond Fever and Pain: Diagnostic Methods for Chikungunya Virus

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      Journal of Clinical Microbiology

      American Society for Microbiology

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          ABSTRACT

          Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus that is primarily transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes. Though reports of an illness consistent with chikungunya date back over 200 years, CHIKV only gained worldwide attention during a massive pandemic that began in East Africa in 2004. Chikungunya, the clinical illness caused by CHIKV, is characterized by a rapid onset of high fever and debilitating joint pain, though in practice, etiologic confirmation of CHIKV requires the availability and use of specific laboratory diagnostics. Similar to infections caused by other arboviruses, CHIKV infections are most commonly detected with a combination of molecular and serological methods, though cell culture and antigen detection are reported. This review provides an overview of available CHIKV diagnostics and highlights aspects of basic virology and epidemiology that pertain to viral detection. Although the number of chikungunya cases has decreased since 2014, CHIKV has become endemic in countries across the tropics and will continue to cause sporadic outbreaks in naive individuals. Consistent access to accurate diagnostics is needed to detect individual cases and initiate timely responses to new outbreaks.

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          Chikungunya in the Americas.

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            Chikungunya: a re-emerging virus.

            In the past decade, chikungunya--a virus transmitted by Aedes spp mosquitoes--has re-emerged in Africa, southern and southeastern Asia, and the Indian Ocean Islands as the cause of large outbreaks of human disease. The disease is characterised by fever, headache, myalgia, rash, and both acute and persistent arthralgia. The disease can cause severe morbidity and, since 2005, fatality. The virus is endemic to tropical regions, but the spread of Aedes albopictus into Europe and the Americas coupled with high viraemia in infected travellers returning from endemic areas increases the risk that this virus could establish itself in new endemic regions. This Seminar focuses on the re-emergence of this disease, the clinical manifestations, pathogenesis of virus-induced arthralgia, diagnostic techniques, and various treatment modalities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Outbreak of chikungunya on Reunion Island: early clinical and laboratory features in 157 adult patients.

              Chikungunya is a reemerging disease. In 2005-2006, a severe outbreak occurred on Reunion Island in the southwestern part of the Indian Ocean. Other islands in this area were affected during the same period. Adult patients with acute chikungunya (defined as onset of fever and/or polyarthralgia in the 5 days preceding consultation) and laboratory-confirmed chikungunya who were referred to Groupe Hospitalier Sud Reunion during the period from March 2005 through April 2006 were included in this retrospective study. Their clinical and laboratory features are reported. Laboratory-confirmed acute chikungunya was documented in 157 patients. The mean age of patients was 57.9 years, and the ratio of male to female patients was 1.24 : 1. Sixty percent of patients had at least 1 comorbidity. Ninety-seven patients (61.8%) were hospitalized, and 60 (38.2%) were treated as outpatients. Five fatalities were reported. One hundred fifty-one patients (96.1%) experienced polyarthralgia, and 129 (89%) experienced fever. Gastrointestinal symptoms were reported by 74 patients (47.1%), and skin rash was reported by 63 (40.1%). Hemorrhagic signs were rare. Lymphopenia and hypocalcemia were the prominent laboratory findings. Severe thrombocytopenia was rarely observed. Chikungunya virus can be responsible for explosive outbreaks of disease. Polyarthralgia and fever are the 2 main clinical features. In this era of travel and globalization, chikungunya should be considered in the differential diagnosis of febrile polyarthralgia with an abrupt onset.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Clinical Microbiology
                J Clin Microbiol
                American Society for Microbiology
                0095-1137
                1098-660X
                June 2019
                May 24 2019
                May 24 2019
                : 57
                : 6
                Article
                10.1128/JCM.00350-19
                © 2019
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