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      Sandflies in an urban area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in midwest Brazil Translated title: Phlébotomes dans une zone urbaine de transmission de la leishmaniose viscérale dans le centre-ouest du Brésil

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          Abstract

          The phlebotomine fauna of Campo Grande city, capital of Mato Grosso do Sul state in Brazil, an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis, has been thoroughly investigated, but all the insect collections were undertaken with automatic light traps. The present study sought to investigate the fauna in this city using Shannon and Disney traps, having human beings and hamsters, respectively, as bait. Both types of traps were installed in forest fragment and peridomiciliary areas in the period from 2007 to 2009. The phlebotomine females were analyzed by PCR for Leishmania identification. Lutzomyia longipalpis was the only species collected in the peridomiciles and rendered a total of 574 specimens with a 5.2:1 male:female ratio. A total of eight species were attracted to the two traps (one of each type) installed in the forest fragment, including: Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, Evandromyia bourrouli, Evandromyia lenti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia christenseni, Psathyromyia bigeniculata, and Sciopemyia sordellii. A total of 143 specimens were collected, Bi. flaviscutellata accounting for 81% and Lu. longipalpis for 1.4% of them. In one female of Lu. longipalpis collected in a Disney trap installed in a peridomicile, Leishmania ( Leishmania) infantum DNA was found, thus strengthening the hypothesis that the transmission of leishmaniasis is in fact occurring in the anthropic environment.

          Translated abstract

          La faune des phlébotomes de la ville de Campo Grande, capitale du Mato Grosso do Sul, une zone endémique pour la leishmaniose viscérale, a été soigneusement étudiée, mais toutes les récoltes d’insectes ont été entreprises avec des pièges lumineux automatiques. La présente étude visait à étudier la faune dans cette ville à l’aide de pièges Shannon et Disney, qui utilisent respectivement des êtres humains et des hamsters comme appât. Les deux types de pièges ont été installés dans des fragments de forêt et les zones péridomiciliaires de 2007 à 2009. Les femelles de phlébotomes ont été analysées par PCR pour l’identification des Leishmania. Lutzomyia longipalpis était la seule espèce recueillie dans les péridomiciles et a produit un total de 574 échantillons avec un ratio mâles/femelles de 5.2/1. Au total, huit espèces ont été attirées par les deux pièges (un de chaque type) installé dans le fragment de forêt : Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, Evandromyia bourrouli, Evandromyia lenti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia christenseni, Psathyromyia bigeniculata et Sciopemyia sordellii. Un total de 143 échantillons a été collecté, dont Bi. flaviscutellata représentait 81 % et Lu. longipalpis 1.4 %. Dans une femelle de Lu. longipalpis recueillie dans un piège Disney installé dans un péridomicile, de l’ADN de Leishmania ( Leishmania) infantum a été trouvé, renforçant ainsi l’hypothèse que la transmission de la leishmaniose se produit dans l’environnement anthropique.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Phlebotomine vectors of the leishmaniases: a review.

           R Killick (1989)
          An account is given of work published during the past 10 years incriminating species of phlebotomine sandflies as vectors of Leishmania species which infect man. An assessment is made of the degrees of certainty of the vectorial roles of eighty-one species and subspecies of sandflies (thirty-seven Old World and forty-four New World) in the transmission of twenty-nine leishmanial parasites of mammals. At least one species of sandfly is considered to be a proven vector of each of ten parasites. Of the eighty-one sandfly taxa, evidence is judged to be sufficient to incriminate nineteen as proven vectors (eleven Phlebotomus species and eight Lutzomyia species or subspecies) and evidence for a further fourteen (nine Phlebotomus species and five Lutzomyia species or subspecies) is considered to be strong. The suggested criteria for incrimination of a vector are anthropophily and common infection with the same leishmanial parasite as that found in man in the same place. More weight should be given to natural infections persisting after the digestion of a bloodmeal than those in the presence of blood. Supporting evidence is a concordance in the distribution of the fly and the disease in man, proof that the fly feeds regularly on the reservoir host, a flourishing development of the parasite in infected flies and the experimental transmission of the parasite by the bite of the fly.
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            Sampling methods for phlebotomine sandflies.

            A review is presented of methods for sampling phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae). Among approximately 500 species of Phlebotominae so far described, mostly in the New World genus Lutzomyia and the Old World genus Phlebotomus, about 10% are known vectors of Leishmania parasites or other pathogens. Despite being small and fragile, sandflies have a wide geographical range with species occupying a considerable diversity of ecotopes and habitats, from deserts to humid forests, so that suitable methods for collecting them are influenced by environmental conditions where they are sought. Because immature phlebotomines occupy obscure terrestrial habitats, it is difficult to find their breeding sites. Therefore, most trapping methods and sampling procedures focus on sandfly adults, whether resting or active. The diurnal resting sites of adult sandflies include tree holes, buttress roots, rock crevices, houses, animal shelters and burrows, from which they may be aspirated directly or trapped after being disturbed. Sandflies can be collected during their periods of activity by interception traps, or by using attractants such as bait animals, CO2 or light. The method of trapping used should: (a) be suited to the habitat and area to be surveyed, (b) take into account the segment of the sandfly population to be sampled (species, sex and reproduction condition) and (c) yield specimens of appropriate condition for the study objectives (e.g. identification of species present, population genetics or vector implication). Methods for preservation and transportation of sandflies to the laboratory also depend on the objectives of a particular study and are described accordingly.
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              Dispersal of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

              Mark-release-recapture studies were carried out during 1990-1991 in El Callejón, Colombia, an endemic focus of American visceral leishmaniasis, to study the longevity, dispersal, and flight range of the principal vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva. Several groups of wild-caught (n = 1,539) and laboratory-reared F1 (n = 2,208) sand flies were marked with fluorescent dusts and released. Recaptures at daytime resting sites, on animal bait, and in CDC light traps were made for 20 d following each release. From 2 to 9% of L. longipalpis were recaptured, a rate which differed between the sexes (7.7% male, 1.5% female). Overall, 49% of the L. longipalpis were recaptured between 0 and 50 m, 48% within 100 and 300 m, and nearly 3% at > or = 0.5 km from the release site. Sex differences in recapture site, distance flown, and direction were observed. Our results indicate that the dispersal behavior of peridomestic populations of L. longipalpis compares more closely with that of Old World sand fly species from similar habitats than to the sylvan Neotropical phlebotomines.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2016
                05 September 2016
                : 23
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2016/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul 79070900 Campo Grande MS Brazil
                [2 ] Human Parasitology Laboratory, Anhanguera-Uniderp University 79035740 Campo Grande MS Brazil
                [3 ] Faculty of Public Health, Epidemiology Department, University of São Paulo 01246904 São Paulo SP Brazil
                [4 ] Department of Immunology, Research Center Aggeu Magalhães 50670420 Recife PE Brazil
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: mecdorval@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                parasite160038 10.1051/parasite/2016035
                10.1051/parasite/2016035
                5018930
                27593433
                © M.E.C. Dorval et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 35, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Research Article

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