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      Hexagonal AlN: Dimensional-crossover-driven band-gap transition

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          Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple

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            Efficient iterative schemes forab initiototal-energy calculations using a plane-wave basis set

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              Is Open Access

              Two-Dimensional Gas of Massless Dirac Fermions in Graphene

              Electronic properties of materials are commonly described by quasiparticles that behave as non-relativistic electrons with a finite mass and obey the Schroedinger equation. Here we report a condensed matter system where electron transport is essentially governed by the Dirac equation and charge carriers mimic relativistic particles with zero mass and an effective "speed of light" c* ~10^6m/s. Our studies of graphene - a single atomic layer of carbon - have revealed a variety of unusual phenomena characteristic of two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermions. In particular, we have observed that a) the integer quantum Hall effect in graphene is anomalous in that it occurs at half-integer filling factors; b) graphene's conductivity never falls below a minimum value corresponding to the conductance quantum e^2/h, even when carrier concentrations tend to zero; c) the cyclotron mass m of massless carriers with energy E in graphene is described by equation E =mc*^2; and d) Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in graphene exhibit a phase shift of pi due to Berry's phase.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                PRBMDO
                Physical Review B
                Phys. Rev. B
                American Physical Society (APS)
                1098-0121
                1550-235X
                February 2015
                February 27 2015
                : 91
                : 8
                Article
                10.1103/PhysRevB.91.085430
                84d03f1f-5fb5-4550-bf22-134a95d1bfa9
                © 2015
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