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      The Polyanalgesic Consensus Conference (PACC): Recommendations on Intrathecal Drug Infusion Systems Best Practices and Guidelines.

      Neuromodulation : journal of the International Neuromodulation Society

      Wiley

      programmable pump, opioid, nonmalignant pain, intrathecal drug delivery, neuropathic pain, Chronic pain, consensus, fixed rate pump, safety, psychological evaluation

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          Abstract

          Pain treatment is best performed when a patient-centric, safety-based philosophy is used to determine an algorithmic process to guide care. Since 2007, the International Neuromodulation Society has organized a group of experts to evaluate evidence and create a Polyanalgesic Consensus Conference (PACC) to guide practice.

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          Most cited references 202

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          Relationship between Nonmedical Prescription-Opioid Use and Heroin Use

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            Is Open Access

            A new look at cerebrospinal fluid circulation

            According to the traditional understanding of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) physiology, the majority of CSF is produced by the choroid plexus, circulates through the ventricles, the cisterns, and the subarachnoid space to be absorbed into the blood by the arachnoid villi. This review surveys key developments leading to the traditional concept. Challenging this concept are novel insights utilizing molecular and cellular biology as well as neuroimaging, which indicate that CSF physiology may be much more complex than previously believed. The CSF circulation comprises not only a directed flow of CSF, but in addition a pulsatile to and fro movement throughout the entire brain with local fluid exchange between blood, interstitial fluid, and CSF. Astrocytes, aquaporins, and other membrane transporters are key elements in brain water and CSF homeostasis. A continuous bidirectional fluid exchange at the blood brain barrier produces flow rates, which exceed the choroidal CSF production rate by far. The CSF circulation around blood vessels penetrating from the subarachnoid space into the Virchow Robin spaces provides both a drainage pathway for the clearance of waste molecules from the brain and a site for the interaction of the systemic immune system with that of the brain. Important physiological functions, for example the regeneration of the brain during sleep, may depend on CSF circulation.
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              Randomized clinical trial of an implantable drug delivery system compared with comprehensive medical management for refractory cancer pain: impact on pain, drug-related toxicity, and survival.

               Eric Buchser,  Peter Staats,   (2002)
              Implantable intrathecal drug delivery systems (IDDSs) have been used to manage refractory cancer pain, but there are no randomized clinical trial (RCT) data comparing them with comprehensive medical management (CMM). We enrolled 202 patients on an RCT of CMM versus IDDS plus CMM. Entry criteria included unrelieved pain (visual analog scale [VAS] pain scores >/= 5 on a 0 to 10 scale). Clinical success was defined as >/= 20% reduction in VAS scores, or equal scores with >/= 20% reduction in toxicity. The main outcome measure was pain control combined with change of toxicity, as measured by the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, 4 weeks after randomization. Sixty of 71 IDDS patients (84.5%) achieved clinical success compared with 51 of 72 CMM patients (70.8%, P =.05). IDDS patients more often achieved >/= 20% reduction in both pain VAS and toxicity (57.7% [41 of 71] v 37.5% [27 of 72], P =.02). The mean CMM VAS score fell from 7.81 to 4.76 (39% reduction); for the IDDS group, the scores fell from 7.57 to 3.67 (52% reduction, P =.055). The mean CMM toxicity scores fell from 6.36 to 5.27 (17% reduction); for the IDDS group, the toxicity scores fell from 7.22 to 3.59 (50% reduction, P =.004). The IDDS group had significant reductions in fatigue and depressed level of consciousness (P <.05). IDDS patients had improved survival, with 53.9% alive at 6 months compared with 37.2% of the CMM group (P =.06). IDDSs improved clinical success in pain control, reduced pain, significantly relieved common drug toxicities, and improved survival in patients with refractory cancer pain.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                28042904
                10.1111/ner.12538

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