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      The qualitative content analysis process

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      Journal of Advanced Nursing

      Wiley

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          Abstract

          This paper is a description of inductive and deductive content analysis. Content analysis is a method that may be used with either qualitative or quantitative data and in an inductive or deductive way. Qualitative content analysis is commonly used in nursing studies but little has been published on the analysis process and many research books generally only provide a short description of this method. When using content analysis, the aim was to build a model to describe the phenomenon in a conceptual form. Both inductive and deductive analysis processes are represented as three main phases: preparation, organizing and reporting. The preparation phase is similar in both approaches. The concepts are derived from the data in inductive content analysis. Deductive content analysis is used when the structure of analysis is operationalized on the basis of previous knowledge. Inductive content analysis is used in cases where there are no previous studies dealing with the phenomenon or when it is fragmented. A deductive approach is useful if the general aim was to test a previous theory in a different situation or to compare categories at different time periods.

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          Most cited references 20

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          A method of analysing interview transcripts in qualitative research.

           P Burnard (1991)
          A method of analysing qualitative interview data is outlined as a stage-by-stage process. Some of the problems associated with the method are identified. The researcher in the field of qualitative work is urged to be systematic and open to the difficulties of the task of understanding other people's perceptions.
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            Qualitative Data Analysis

             Ian Dey (2003)
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              Qualitative content analysis: a guide to paths not taken.

               D Morgan (1993)
              Counting codes makes qualitative content analysis a controversial approach to analyzing textual data. Several decades ago, mainstream content analysis rejected qualitative content analysis on the grounds that it was not sufficiently quantitative; today, it is often charged with not being sufficiently qualitative. This article argues that qualitative content analysis is distinctively qualitative in both its approach to coding and its interpretations of counts from codes. Rather than argue over whether to do qualitative content analysis, researchers must make informed decisions about when to use it in analyzing qualitative data.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Advanced Nursing
                J Adv Nurs
                Wiley
                0309-2402
                1365-2648
                April 2008
                April 2008
                : 62
                : 1
                : 107-115
                Article
                10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04569.x
                18352969
                © 2008

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