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      Methodological challenges in qualitative content analysis: A discussion paper.

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          Abstract

          This discussion paper is aimed to map content analysis in the qualitative paradigm and explore common methodological challenges. We discuss phenomenological descriptions of manifest content and hermeneutical interpretations of latent content. We demonstrate inductive, deductive, and abductive approaches to qualitative content analysis, and elaborate on the level of abstraction and degree of interpretation used in constructing categories, descriptive themes, and themes of meaning. With increased abstraction and interpretation comes an increased challenge to demonstrate the credibility and authenticity of the analysis. A key issue is to show the logic in how categories and themes are abstracted, interpreted, and connected to the aim and to each other. Qualitative content analysis is an autonomous method and can be used at varying levels of abstraction and interpretation.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Nurse Educ Today
          Nurse education today
          Elsevier BV
          1532-2793
          0260-6917
          Sep 2017
          : 56
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Nursing, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Health Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden. Electronic address: ulla.hallgren.graneheim@umu.se.
          [2 ] Department of Nursing, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
          Article
          S0260-6917(17)30142-9
          10.1016/j.nedt.2017.06.002
          28651100
          84de706c-6ee6-445a-8664-fd3bc0b60c95
          History

          Latent content,Qualitative content analysis,Themes,Categories,Interpretation degree,Abstraction level,Manifest content

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